) and was first reported in the north Florida/south Georgia growing area in 1986 ( Kucharek, 1986 ). TSWV is transmitted exclusively by thrips ( Kirk, 1997 ). The most important thrips species in the southeastern United States are the western flower
Peter C. Andersen, Stephen M. Olson, M. Timur Momol, and Joshua H. Freeman
Joseph. M. Kemble, Goeff W. Zehnder, W. Robert Goodman, Mahefatiana Andrianifahanana, Ellen M. Bauske, Edward J. Sikora, and John F. Murphy
The Alabama Tomato Integrated Pest Management (IPM) Program was demonstrated during two growing seasons in southeastern Alabama. The program consisted of a twice-a-week insect/disease scouting service combined with a weather-timed spray program (TOM-CAST). On average, growers made four fewer insecticide applications and three to four fewer fungicide applications when following the IPM program compared to their conventional, calendar-based program. There was no apparent reduction in yield when following the IPM program. An economic analysis indicated that growers following the IPM program saved an average of $54.36/acre ($134.32/ha).
David G. Riley, Shimat V. Joseph, W. Terry Kelley, Steve Olson, and John Scott
Thrips-transmitted TSWV ( Tospovirus: Bunyaviridae ) has caused serious losses to tomato, Solanum lycopersicum L., production worldwide ( Goldbach and Peters, 1994 , Persley et al., 2006 ). In Georgia alone, the losses to tomato and pepper
Michael G. Bausher
viral disease as a result of tool contamination and mechanical and human activity ( Cohen et al., 1999 ; Lewandowski et al., 2010 ). Although transmission of TSWV, a tospovirus, by plant extracts has been reported ( Betti, 1992 ; Zitter, 2006 ), the
Matthew D. Robbins, Mohammed A.T. Masud, Dilip R. Panthee, Randolph G. Gardner, David M. Francis, and Mikel R. Stevens
. Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) and Phytophthora infestans (Mont.) de Bary (late blight) are responsible for substantial tomato crop losses worldwide ( Foolad et al., 2008 ; Fry and Goodwin, 1997 ; Kim and Mutschler, 2005 , 2006 ; Mumford et al
Suzanne O’Connell, Cary Rivard, Mary M. Peet, Chris Harlow, and Frank Louws
-marketable fruit was sorted into different categories based on types of defect including: cat-facing, blossom end rot, insect damage, fruit cracking, TSWV, and “other.” The number of individual tomatoes as well as the total weight of fruit for each category was
Paul B. Francis and C. Robert Stark, Jr.
seasons. Plant mortality losses were greater in 2008 as a result of increased incidence of the TSWV. Four plants were lost to TSWV in 2007 compared with 31 plants lost in 2008. Incidences of early blight [caused by Alternaria solani (Ell. & Mart.) L. R
S.J. Scott, M. Stevens, and R.C. Gergerich
Seedlings of eight accessions of L. hirsutum and susceptible L. esculentum `VF Pink' controls were spray inoculated twice in the greenhouse with tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) Arkansas 85-9. Plants lacking symptoms were reinoculated, then evaluated for TSWV by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Controls were consistently infected; sixty noninfected L. hirsutum were propagated by cuttings and inoculated with TSWV isolates T2 (lettuce), G-87 (gloxinia), 87-34 (tomato) and a mixture of the four isolates. All selections became infected in at least one test, but systemic infection was often delayed. Additional wild Lycopersicon species and numbers of accessions evaluated for resistance to TSWV include L. cheesmanii (9), L. chmielewskii (17), L. hirsutum (24), L. hirsutum f. glabratum (17), L. parviflorum (4) and L. pennellii (44). No new sources of strong resistance have been identified yet. Evaluation of additional species and accessions is continuing.
Juan C. Diaz-Perez, D. Bertrand, and D. Giddings
Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) can cause serious damage to tomato, pepper, lettuce, and other crops. The virus is transmitted by several species of thrips. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of the time (t, days after transplanting) when TSWV symptoms first appeared on tomato plant size and fruit yield. Tomato (`Florida-47') plants were drip-irrigated and planted over black plastic mulch. The experiment was carried out in Tifton, Ga., during Spring 1999. High populations of thrips were detected since early stages of plant development, which resulted in a high incidence of TSWV. Plant fresh weight was significantly higher (r 2 = 0.632, n = 216) the later in plant development TSWV symptoms first appeared (i.e., with increasing t values). Total fruit production of individual plant linearly increased with increasing t values (r 2 = 0.664, n = 216). As with total fruit production, fruit marketable yield was also higher with increasing t values; however, marketable yield was significantly reduced even when plants were infected later in the season (t > 55 days after transplanting). Our results suggest that it is important to keep tomato plants free from TSWV as long as possible. This applies to both developing and developed plants.
W.B. Evans, D.M. Ingram, C. Waldrup, B. Layton, A. Milling, T. Bishop, and V. Lee
Mississippi's two largest tomato-growing areas are in Smith and George Counties. The Truck Crops Branch Experiment Station in Crystal Springs is the closest vegetable research site to Smith County but does not share the same soil type. Tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) reduces fruit yield and marketability, and its incidence appears to be increasing in the state. The objectives of this trial were 1) to determine fruit yield and TSWV incidence in tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum) grown in central Mississippi, and 2) compare yield and relative yield among cultivars and between locations. Tomato seedlings were transplanted to the field in April 2004 in Smith and Copiah County plots. Production practices included raised beds, black plastic mulch, drip irrigation, and fertilizer applied pre-plant and as side-dressings based on soil test and regionally recommended practices. TSWV incidence was recorded in each plot in Smith Co. in June 2004. In both locations, `Amelia' and `Mountain Spring' were among the top yielding entries. In Smith, the top entries also included `BHN 543' and two commercial experimental entries. In Copiah, `Florida 47 R', `Biltmore', `Mountain Fresh', and `BHN 543' also produced high marketable yields. `Florida 47R', `Bush Celebrity', and `Mountain Fresh' were among the poorest yielding varieties in Smith County. Incidence of TSWV was not formally rated in Copiah. In Smith, percent symptomatic plants per plot were negatively correlated with yield. Symptoms were found on entries reportedly resistant or tolerant to TSWV.