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Carole L. Bassett, D. Michael Glenn, Philip L. Forsline, Michael E. Wisniewski, and Robert E. Farrell Jr

then by humans over the silk road trade routes into Europe. The modern cultivated apple ( Malus × domestica Borkh.) is believed to have been domesticated in Turkestan, now Kazakhstan, Kyrgyzstan, Uzbekistan, Turkmenistan, and Tajikistan ( Harris et al

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Yi Tan, Baisha Li, Yi Wang, Ting Wu, Zhenhai Han, and Xinzhong Zhang

; Requesens et al., 2014 ; Zhang et al., 2014 ). A high rate of in vitro regeneration is the first prerequisite for successful transformation, but many woody perennials such as Malus species are rather recalcitrant to regeneration. The regeneration ability

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Gayle M. Volk, Adam D. Henk, Christopher M. Richards, Philip L. Forsline, and C. Thomas Chao

The mountains of Central Asia have forest species that include Malus sieversii (Ledeb.) M. Roem., a highly diverse apple crop wild relative. The Russian scientist Vavilov explored the forests of Central Asia in the 1920s and made note of the wide

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Meiling Yang, Fang Li, Hong Long, Weiwei Yu, Xiuna Yan, Bin Liu, Yunxiu Zhang, Guorong Yan, and Wenqin Song

Malus sieversii (Ledeb.) Roem. is a wild apple species native to Central Asia. Its provenance includes the region of the Tienshan Mountains, extending from China to Kyrgyzstan and Kazakhstan. It has been recognized as one of the major progenitors

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Tingting Sun, Tingting Pei, Zhijun Zhang, Mingjun Li, Linlin Huang, Cuiying Li, Xueyan Shi, Minghui Zhan, Xiaoyu Cao, Fengwang Ma, and Changhai Liu

-PCR System machine (Bio-Rad iQ 5; Bio-Rad, Hercules, CA). The following gene-specific primers for qRT-PCR were designed with Primer Premier 6 software (Biosoft International, Palo Alto, CA). Transcripts of the Malus elongation factor 1 alpha gene were used

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Carol A. Miles, Travis R. Alexander, Gregory Peck, Suzette P. Galinato, Christopher Gottschalk, and Steve van Nocker

Current demands for diverse, natural, and locally produced beverages have resulted in the reappearance of hard apple ( Malus × domestica ) ciders in food markets, restaurants, and bars. In 2018, revenues from hard cider, perry [fermented pear

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Briana L. Gross, Gayle M. Volk, Christopher M. Richards, Philip L. Forsline, Gennaro Fazio, and C. Thomas Chao

programs that address threats to apple crop production. The Malus collection is maintained as grafted, clonally propagated trees and own-rooted seedling trees. The grafted orchards include 33 species of Malus , of which only one species, Malus

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Gayle M. Volk, Christopher M. Richards, Adam D. Henk, Ann A. Reilley, Patrick A. Reeves, Philip L. Forsline, and Herb S. Aldwinckle

Wild Malus orientalis and Malus sieversii populations from the Middle East and Central Asia may be primary progenitor species to the domesticated apple ( Malus × domestica ) ( Buttner, 2001 ; Watkins, 1995 ). Populations of M. sieversii in

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Gayle M. Volk, Christopher M. Richards, Ann A. Reilley, Adam D. Henk, Patrick A. Reeves, Philip L. Forsline, and Herb S. Aldwinckle

The domestication of Malus × domestica Borkh. has not been fully documented. Malus sieversii (Ledeb.) M. Roem. from central Asia is thought to be a major species contributor, while Malus orientalis and Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. are

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Steven J. McKay, James M. Bradeen, and James J. Luby

Domesticated apple [ Malus pumila (synonymous with Malus × domestica Borkh.)] is among the most commercially important temperate tree fruit in the world with nearly 72 million tonnes produced globally in 2009 ( Food and Agricultural Organization