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Ao Liu, Jibiao Fan, Margaret Mukami Gitau, Liang Chen, and Jinmin Fu

Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. from the Salt Range (Pakistan) to salinity stress Flora Morphol. Distrib. Functional Ecol. Plants 203 683 694 Hasegawa, P.M. Bressan, R.A. Zhu, J.-K. Bohnert, H.J. 2000 Plant cellular and molecular responses to high salinity

Open access

C. L. Murdoch and J. P. Barr

Abstract

Commercial microorganism inoculum was tested for effectiveness in aiding thatch breakdown in common bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.) turf on two golf courses in Hawaii. None of the materials tested were effective in reducing thatch accumulation over a 5-month test period.

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Mingying Xiang, Justin Q. Moss, Dennis L. Martin, and Yanqi Wu

Harlan, J.R. De Wet, J.M.J. 1969 Sources of variation in Cynodon dactylon (L) Pers. Crop Sci. 9 774 778 Karcher, D.E. Richardson, M.D. 2005 Batch analysis of digital images to evaluate turfgrass characteristics Crop Sci. 45 1536 1539 Koch, M.J. Bonos, S

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Michelle M. Wisdom, Michael D. Richardson, Douglas E. Karcher, Donald C. Steinkraus, and Garry V. McDonald

bulbs can persist in zoysiagrass ( Zoysia japonica Steud.) and bermudagrass ( Cynodon dactylon ) in transition zone environments, providing color and biodiversity to dormant turfgrass situations. However, both studies examined a small number of bulb

Open access

David H. Johnson and Ronald E. Talbert

Abstract

Glyphosate, fluazifop, sethoxydim, haloxyfop, and quizalofop were applied to bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] and johnsongrass [Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.] in a ‘Concord’ (Vitis labrusca L.) vineyard in 1985 and 1986. Spray was allowed to contact the grape foliage in all treatments except the glyphosate treatment. Two-year usage of these herbicides controlled johnsongrass and bermudagrass and caused no grape injury. Chemical names used: N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine (glyphosate); (±)-2-[4-[[5-(trifluoromethyl)-2-pyridinyl]oxy]phenoxy]propanoic acid (fluazifop); 2-[1-(ethoxyimino)butyl]-5-[2-(ethylthio)propyl]-3-hydroxy-2-cyclohexen-1-one (sethoxydim); 2-[4[[3-chloro-5-(trifluoro-methyl)-2-pyridinyl]oxy]phenoxy]propanoic acid (haloxyfop); 2-[4-[(6-chloro-2-quinoxalinyl)oxy]phenyoxy]propanoic acid (quizalofop).

Open access

J. H. Dunn, C. J. Nelson, and J. L. Sebaugh

Abstract

Carbohydrate content varied among cultivars of bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L.) at 3 sampling dates during dormancy and greenup. Sucrose and starch decreased in rhizomes between March and May while reducing sugars remained constant. Concentration of stored carbohydrate was correlated positively with the number of rhizomes near the soil surface during winter and early spring. Spring deadspot injury ranged from 60% of the plot area for ‘KSU, (Kansas State University) T-5, to zero for ‘Royal Cape’, ‘Mich. C-53’, ‘Midway’ and ‘KSU D-17.’ Earliest to greenup in spring was ‘KSU T-3’ while ‘KSU T-5’, ‘F-4’, ‘Md. 23’, ‘24’ and ‘U-3’ were only 13-33% green on the same date. Injury was less severe where cultivars utilized carbohydrate and greened early in the spring. Early greenup was associated with thinner layers of thatch. There was no association between thickness or number of rhizomes and spring deadspot.

Open access

G. L. Horst, L. B. Fenn, and N. B. Dunning

Abstract

Turfgrass quality usually is related to fertilization management practices. Nitrogen fertilizer formulations are undergoing change in order to produce acceptable turfgrass response and reduce management costs. Field experiments conducted during 1979–81 evaluated the influence of Ca on urea and nitrate N sources on bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L.) turfgrass color, quality, verdure, and root-rhizome dry matter production. Color, quality, and verdure were significantly improved and persisted longer with the addition of Ca to urea N sources. Early season root and rhizome production also was increased with the urea + calcium application. Verdure was not significantly affected among the N sources. There was not a significant increase in tissue N content. Addition of Ca to the fertilizer formulation apparently enhanced N utilization.

Open access

P. L. Neel, E. O. Burt, P. Busey, and G. H. Snyder

Abstract

Sprigs of ‘Tifgreen’ bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon L.) and seeds of ‘Argentine’ bahiagrass (Paspalum notatum Flügge) were planted in 10 different media consisting of combinations of 5 waste products spread 10 cm deep on black polyethylene plastic sheets. Experiments were conducted in 1976 and 1977 utilizing the following media components: composted heat-treated sewage sludge (SS); composted sugarcane processing byproducts (SB); composted municipal wood chips (WC); sandy muck soil (SM); and water treatment sludge (WS). In 51 days the bahiagrass had formed sod which was comparable in tear strength to commercially available sod. Excellent rooting of the experimental sod occurred in 7 days; commercially cut sod had rooted much less as determined by root weights and the force required to uproot the sod. Bermudagrass sprigs did not develop sufficient coverage in 51 days to yield acceptable sod but did so by 65 days. The sod also rooted more quickly than commercial bermudagrass sod. Both grasses rooted better than commercial sod because root apical meristems were not cut off during harvesting. The media which resulted in the best and worst combinations of evaluations were different for each grass species. Excellent quality bahiagrass sod was produced in media containing SS, and the least acceptable in WC+SS and WS+SB media. A system now exists to make use of a number of urban waste products for sod production, while at the same time shortening production time.

Open access

B. J. Johnson

Abstract

A ‘Tifway’ bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. × C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davy] green-overseeded with ‘Medalist VI’ perennial ryegrass [Lolium perenne (L.)] was treated with variable rates and frequencies of 26% (flowable) tricalcium arsenate. Ryegrass was severely injured when tricalcium arsenate was applied in mid to late fall, after it had fully germinated. Injury to ryegrass was not as severe when applied prior to or during germination. Timing of chemical application had more effect on injury than rate of application.

Free access

Erick Amombo, Longxing Hu, Jibiao Fan, Zhengrong Hu, and Jinmin Fu

Clonal plants can consist of connected individual ramets that enhance resource sharing through physiological integration. This integration enables the whole clone to tolerate environmental stresses. The objective of this research was to investigate the effects of physical ramet connections on the integration of antioxidant enzymes in clonal common bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) growing under heterogeneously distributed water; i.e., nonuniform distribution of water due to 20% polyethylene glycol (PEG 6000) treatment on some ramets and not others. The bottom, middle, upper and three fragments of clonal common bermudagrass were subjected to 20% PEG 6000 with water potential of −1.8 MPa to induce heterogeneous and homogeneous drought stress. The control was not treated with 20% PEG 6000. Within the heterogeneous treatment, water stressed clonal fragments generally had higher leaf and root antioxidant enzyme activities with respect to superoxide dismutase, catalase, peroxidase (except for root peroxidase). There was no difference in antioxidant enzyme activity within the connected clonal ramets for homogeneous treatment; i.e., three connected ramets treated with 20% PEG 6000. Osmotically stressed clonal fragments under heterogeneous environments had a lower level of malonaldehyde (MDA) compared with those in homogeneous regimes. The antioxidant enzyme integration was affected by directionality and water availability contrast. This was indicated by significant decline in MDA levels within the heterogeneous treatments as compared with homogeneous treatment, which suggested reduced lipid peroxidation. These results suggested that ramet connections facilitate integration of antioxidant enzymes within clonal plants growing in heterogeneously available water. Enzymes were integrated from clonal fragments growing in water sufficient environment to those in water stressed regimes. This enhanced reactive oxygen species scavenging capacity of the entire clone hence improved drought tolerance.