, linoleic acid, and linolenic acid), less than 10% of the oil consisted of saturated fatty acids (i.e., palmitic acid, stearic acid, and a trace amount of arachidonic acid). Zn application affected the concentrations of some fatty acids. Application of 0
Ruimin Huang, Chao Shen, Susu Wang, and Zhengjia Wang
Xinyi Chang, Junli Sun, Lianling Liu, Wang He, and Baolong Zhao
significant enrichment of wild jujube DEGs under salt stress. The enriched metabolic pathways included photosynthesis, photosynthesis-antenna proteins, glyoxylate and dicarboxylate metabolism, alpha-linolenic acid metabolism, cysteine and methionine metabolism
Chana Phromtons and J. O. Garner Jr.
Storage roots of `Beauregard' and Centennial' were analyzed for total fatty acid composition and fatty acid composition by lipid class. The glycolipid, monagalactosyldiglycerol, may have been involved in chilling tolerance of `Beauregard' storage roots. This lipid had over 70 percent low-melting point fatty acids, mostly linoleic acid and linolenic acid. No consistent differences in the composition of phospholipids could be related to the chilling responses of the two sweetpotato cultivars.
Sandra A. Balch, Cynthia B. McKenney, and Dick L. Auld
Oenothera biennis, common evening primrose, is grown commercially for its seed, which contains high levels of gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), a fatty acid with pharmaceutical and dietary importance. Other native species of Oenothera are being evaluated for the presence of GLA in their seed and their potential as a commercial source of GLA. Native evening primrose species have shown slow emergence and low germination percentages. Studies were conducted to determine the effects of chilling, scarification, and priming on germination of seed for six species of native evening primrose. Overall, seed germination was improved by seed treatments. However, responses to the various treatments differed among species.
Kyoung-Shim Cho, Hyun-Ju Kim, Jae-Ho Lee, Jung-Hoon Kang, and Young-Sang Lee
Fatty acid is known as a physiologically active compound, and its composition in rice may affect human health in countries where rice is the major diet. The fatty acid composition in brown rice of 120 Korean native cultivars was determined by one-step extraction/methylation method and GC. The average composition of 9 detectable fatty acids in tested rice cultivars were as followings: myristic acid; 0.6%, palmitic acid; 21.2%, stearic acid; 1.8%, oleic acid; 36.5%, linoleic acid; 36.3%, linolenic acid; 1.7%, arachidic acid; 0.5%, behenic acid; 0.4%, and lignoceric acid; 0.9%. Major fatty acids were palmitic, oleic and linoleic acid, which composed around 94%. The rice cultivar with the highest linolenic acid was cv. Jonajo (2.1%), and cvs. Pochoenjangmebye and Sandudo showed the highest composition of palmitic (23.4%) and oleic acid (44.8%), respectively. Cultivar Pochuenjangmebye exhitibed the highest composition of saturated fatty acid (28.1%), while cvs. Sandudo and Modo showed the highest mono-unsaturated (44.8%) and poly-unsaturated (42.4%) fatty acid composition, respectively. The oleic acid showed negative correlation with palmitic and linoleic acid, while positive correlation between behenic and lignoceric acids was observed.
Jeffrey A. Anderson
`Early Calwonder' pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) and `Jubilee' corn (Zea mays L.) leaf disks exposed to high temperature stress produced ethylene, ethane, methanol, acetaldehyde, and ethanol based on comparison of retention times during gas chromatography to authentic standards. Methanol, ethanol, and acetaldehyde were also identified by mass spectroscopy. Corn leaf disks produced lower levels of ethylene, ethane, and methanol, but more acetaldehyde and ethanol than pepper. Production of ethane, a by-product of lipid peroxidation, coincided with an increase in electrolyte leakage (EL) in pepper but not in corn. Compared with controls, pepper leaf disks infiltrated with linolenic acid evolved significantly greater amounts of ethane, acetaldehyde, and methanol and similar levels of ethanol. EL and volatile hydrocarbon production were not affected by fatty acid infiltration in corn. Infiltration of pepper leaves with buffers increasing in pH from 5.5 to 9.5 increased methanol production.
Shiow Y. Wang and Miklos Faust
The changes of membrane lipids in apple (Malus domestics Borkh. cv. Delicious) auxillary and terminal buds from August to April were determined. The predominant lipids were monogalactosyl diglyceride (MGDG), digalactosyl diglyceride (DGDG), phosphatidylcholine (PC), and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE). An increase in membrane polar lipids was associated with budbreak and bud growth from August to April. Linolenic acid was the predominant fatty acid in MGDG, DGDG, and PC, while linoleic acid was predominant in PE. Phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and phosphatidylinositol (PI) contained a high amount of palmitic acid. The ratio of (18:2 + 18:3) to 18:1 fatty acids in galactolipids in apple buds increased from August to April. ß-Sitosterol and sitosteryl ester were the predominant sterols in apple buds. An increase in sitosterol, a decrease in sitosteryl ester, and a decline in the ratio of free sterols to phospholipids occurred during budbreak in spring. A decrease in sitosterol was associated with bud expansion in spring.
Mauricio Canoles, Marisol Soto, and Randolph Beaudry
The aldehydes cis-3-hexenal, hexanal, and trans-2-hexenal; the alcohols 1-hexanol, and cis-3-hexenol; and the ketone 1-penten-3-one are produced as a consequence of lipid degradation following tissue disruption and are among the most important volatile compounds in tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) aroma. The biosynthesis of cis-3-hexenal and other volatiles noted involves the action of a sequence of enzymes including lipase, lipoxygenase (LOX), hydroperoxide lyase (HPL), isomerase, and alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH) on glycerolipids containing the fatty acids, linoleic acid (18:2) and linolenic acid (18:3), via the LOX pathway. In the current work, the formation and sensory perception of volatile compounds was studied in tomato plant lines where HPL activity was genetically altered. LeHPL co-suppression dramatically reduced the production of lipid-derived C6-volatiles in leaves, but in fruits, only unsaturated C6-volatile production was affected, suggesting LeHPL-independent formation of hexanal occurs in fruits, but not in leaves. Increased production of 5-carbon volatiles is proposed as an alternative way to metabolize 13-hydroperoxy linolenic acid in plants with reduced LeHPL activity. Changes in the volatile profile of leaves and fruits of tomato lines in which LeHPL activity is reduced markedly are readily detected by nontrained sensory panels. The studies demonstrate that a marked reduction in the activity of one of the most critical steps in the LOX pathway can markedly impact sensory perception. Efforts to improve total volatile formation may require the modification of LOX pathway at several steps simultaneously, including precursor formation, and LOX and HPL activities.
Sandra A. Balch, Cynthia B. McKenney, and Dick L. Auld
Oenothera biennis, common evening primrose, produces seeds that have a high oil content containing gamma-linolenic acid (GLA), a fatty acid of medicinal, and dietary importance. These plants are commonly found in sandy or gravelly soils and have the ability to tolerate hot, dry conditions. Plants containing economically important oils such as GLA are potential crops for arid environments with minimal irrigation. Many native species of evening primrose have not yet been evaluated for oil content. In this project, a systematic survey of native Onagraceae species was conducted in the Texas Panhandle and the Texas South Plains. Six species of Oenothera and two species of Calylophus were found. Locations were recorded with a Global Positioning System (GPS) to facilitate relocation and collection. Distribution maps were made for each species. The occurrence of species varied greatly from north to south, with the exception of one species that occurred throughout the area surveyed. Seeds were collected from each species and from various locations within the range of each species. Germination percentages were determined for each species and had a wide variation. Evaluation of the oil content of this native germplasm could possibly lead to development of new commercial sources of GLA.
C.L. Murphy, N.W. Hopper, C.B. McKenney, and D.L. Auld
The oil extracted from seed of selected accessions of Oenothera, also known as the wildflower evening primrose, has documented medical applications. Evening primrose oil contains from 0.0 to 12.0% gamma-linolenic acid (GLA) (C 18:3, delta 6, 9, 12). This unique fatty acid, which occurs in only a few plant species, can correct deficiencies in the delta 6 desaturase enzyme. Low levels of this enzyme prevent formation of the long chain fatty acids responsible for the production of prostaglandins and thromboxanes. Supplementation of the diet with evening primrose oil rich in GLA ensures adequate levels of these essential products. Inconsistent seed germination, poor emergence, and small seed size of accessions containing higher levels of GLA have limited commercial production of this crop. Currently, most producers establish their field through transplants. In this project, methods of improving seed germination have been explored. Seed coatings using diatomaceous earth were shown to facilitate handling and improve germination in the laboratory. Osmotic priming and red light exposure were also evaluated as means of improving germination.