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Esmaeil Fallahi and D. Ross Rodney

The influence of six rootstock on growth, yield, fruit quality, and leaf mineral nutrient concentration of `Fairchild' mandarin [`Clementine' mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) × `Orlando' tangelo (C. paradisi Macf. × C. reticulata)] is reported for the arid climate of southwestern Arizona. Trees on macrophylla (Alemow) (C. macrophylla Wester) were precocious and produced high yield 4 years after planting. Six-year cumulative yields of trees on Volkamer lemon (C. limon Burro f.), Carrizo citrange [C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck × Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.], Taiwanica (C. taiwanica Tan. & shin.), and rough lemon (C. jambhiri Lush.) were similar and higher than those of trees on macrophylla and Batangas mandarin (C. reticulata). `Fairchild' mandarin tree canopies were large with Volkamer lemon and Taiwanica; intermediate with Carrizo citrange, rough lemon, and Batangas mandarin; and small with macrophylla rootstock. Fruit from trees on Carrizo citrange had the highest soluble solids concentration (SSC), while those on Volkamer lemon and rough lemon had the lowest SSC and total acids. `Fairchild' trees on macrophylla had higher levels of leaf N, Mn, and Fe but lower Ca, while trees on Batangas mandarin and Carrizo citrange had higher leaf K than those on the other rootstock. Trees on Volkamer lemon had higher leaf Zn than those on Carrizo citrange, Taiwanica, rough lemon, and Batangas mandarin rootstock. Considering yield, growth, fruit quality, and/or leaf nutrient concentration, Volkamer lemon, Carrizo citrange, Taiwanica, and rough lemon are suitable for `Fairchild' mandarin in the arid regions of southwestern Arizona. Trees on macrophylla could be advantageous for short-term planting, but would not be satisfactory for long-term planting because of gradual decline in growth and yields. Batangas mandarin is not recommended for `Fairchild' mandarin due to poor production.

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Neusa M.C. Stenzel, Carmen S.V.J. Neves, José C. Gomes, and Cristiane C. Medina

This study reports the performance (yield, tree size, and fruit quality) of 'Ponkan' mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) on seven rootstocks, evaluated for 11 years under Southern Brazil conditions. Trees on C13 citrange had higher cumulative yield for seven harvests than those on trifoliate orange. Cleopatra mandarin, rough lemon, Rangpur lime, Sunki mandarin, and Volkamer lemon rootstocks maintained their values at an intermediate position and did not present any significant difference regarding C13 citrange, and trifoliate orange. Trees on C13 citrange and on trifoliate orange exhibited the lowest alternate bearing index. Cleopatra mandarin induced the greatest canopy volume, but it was not significantly different from Sunki mandarin and rough lemon. The smallest trees were those on Volkamer lemon and trifoliate orange. The highest yield efficiency came from trees on C13 citrange and the smallest on Cleopatra mandarin. Rootstocks did not significantly affect fruit weight.

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A.M. Akl*

This study was conducted during 2002 and 2003 seasons to select the best citrus rootstocks for young `Valencia' orange trees grown under soil salinity stress. Six citrus rootstocks namely Volkamer lemon, Cleopatra mandarin, Troyer citrange, Rough lemon, Egyptian lime, and Sour orange were tested. Four soil salinity levels, namely, 0.0%, 0.1%, 0.2%, and 0.4% were examined. Results showed that growth criteria, plant pigments and percentages of N, P, and K in the leaves of `Valencia' orange onto all citrus rootstocks tended to reduce with raising soil salinity. The harmful effects imposed by soil salinity was `Valencia' orange on Volkamer lemon, Cleopatra mandarin Troyer citrange, Rough lemon, Egyptian lime, and Sour orange, in asending order. Results proved the superiority of Volkamer lemon, Cleopatra mandarin, and Trouyer citrange rootstocks for `Valencia' orange transplants grown under salinity conditions as compared to the other rootstocks. `Valencia' orange on such promising rootstocks could tolerate soil salinity until 0.20% without adverse effects on growth of transplants. Sour orange rootstock seems to be the lowest suitable stock for `Valencia' orange tansplants grown under soil salinity conditions.

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Esmaeil Fallahi, Zahra Mousavi, and D. Ross Rodney

The influence, of 10 rootstocks on growth, yield, and fruit quality of `Orlando' tangelo (Citrus paradisi Macf. × C. reticulata Blanco) was studied for 7 years under the arid climate of southwestern Arizona. Trees on macrophylla (Alemow) (C. macrophylla Wester) were the most precocious and produced the highest yields 4 years after planting. Seven-year cumulative yields of trees on Carrizo citrange [C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck × Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.], Yuma citrange (P. trifoliata × C. sinensis), Volkamer lemon (C. limon Burm f.), rough lemon (C. jambhiri Lush), Taiwanica (C. taiwanica), and macrophylla were similar and higher than those on Savage citrange (P. trifofiata × C. sinensis), Batangas mandarin (C. reticulata Blanco), Ichang pummelo (C. ichangensis hyb.), and Palestine sweet lime (C. limettoides Tan.). Trees on Carrizo citrange had relatively large tree canopies and larger fruit, and fruit from trees on Volkamer lemon and rough lemon was lower in total soluble solids concentration (TSS) and total acids (TA) than fruit from trees on other rootstocks. Fruit from trees on Savage citrange was smallest but had the highest TSS. Considering yield, growth, and/or various quality factors, Volkamer lemon, rough lemon, Yuma citrange, and particularly Carrizo citrange, are suitable for `Orlando' tangelo in the arid regions of the southwestern United States. Trees on macrophylla, Savage citrange, and Ichang pummelo had small canopies and were least productive. `Orlando' tangelo trees on Savage citrange and Ichang pummelo rootstocks, however, might be good choices at a spacing closer than 7 × 7 m because of their high fruit TSS and fruit size, respectively. Trees on Palestine sweet lime declined and had low yields, and those on Batangas mandarin had low yields and poor fruit quality. These rootstocks are not recommended for `Orlando' tangelo under conditions similar to those of this experiment.

Open access

Esmaeil Fallahi, John W. Moon Jr., and D. Ross Rodney


Effects of 12 rootstocks on yield and quality of ‘Redblush’ grapefruit (Citrus paradisi Macf.) were measured under the arid climate of southwestern Arizona. Trees on ‘Palestine’ sweet lime (C. aurantifolia L.) and ‘Volkamer’ lemon (C. limon Burm. f.) produced high cumulative yield, but small fruit. Trees on macrophylla (Alemow) (C. macrophylla) produced higher yields 5 years after planting, and had significantly higher mean yield efficiency than trees on other rootstocks; trees on ‘Cleopatra’ mandarin (C. reticulata Blanco.) and ‘Taiwanica’ (C. taiwanica) had a relatively lower production 9 years after planting. Fruit of trees on ‘Carrizo’ and ‘Troyer’ citranges [Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf. × C. sinensis (L.) Osbeck] were largest. Trees on ‘Savage’ citrange (P. trifoliata × C. sinensis) had lowest yield, thinnest peel, and highest levels of total soluble solids content and soluble solids : acid ratio. Fruit of trees on ‘Swingle’ citrumelo or C.P.B. 4475 (C. paradisi × P. trifoliata) rootstock consistently had higher percentage acid than those on other rootstocks. Considering yield and/or various quality factors, ‘Volkamer’ lemon, rough lemon (C. limon Burm. f.), ‘Palestine’ sweet lime, ‘Oklawaha’ sour orange (C. aurantium L.) and, particularly, ‘Carrizo’ citrange, are suitable for ‘Redblush’ grapefruit in the arid regions of the southwestern United States. ‘Savage’ citrange, ‘Ichang’ pummelo (C. ichangensis hyb.), and ‘Swingle’ were poor-yielding rootstocks for ‘Redblush’ grapefruit and are thus undesirable for planting under the standard spacing (7 × 7 m) of this experiment. ‘Savage’ and ‘Swingle’ might be good choices at higher densities because they increased yield efficiency and quality.

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M.M. Khattab, A.A. Elezaby, S. ElOraby, and A.M. Hassan

This investigation was carried out on 13-year-old Valencia orange trees [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck] budded on five different rootstocks. Heat unit accumulation (temperature above 12.5 °C) for fruits worked on the various rootstocks were calculated from full bloom to maturity stage. Valencia fruits on Troyer citrange (C. sinensis × Poncirus trifoliata) and Carrizo citrange (C. sinensis × Poncirus trifoliata) rootstocks matured earlier when compared to those growing on Cleopatra mandarin (C. reticulata Blanco), Volkamer lemon (C. volkameriana Ten. and Pasq.), and sour orange (C. aurantium) rootstocks. The results showed that the Valencia fruits, regardless of rootstock, could be stored for different periods under different conditions. However, in order to avoid degradation in fruit quality, storing periods should not exceed 21, 60, and 120 days under room conditions (25 °C and RH 25% to 35%), 4 °C (RH 80% to 85%), and 8 °C (RH 80% to 85%); respectively.

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François Luro, Frédéric Laigret, Joseph-Marie Bové, and Patrick Ollitrault

We used three short repetitive nucleotide sequences [(GTG)5, (TCC)5, and (GACA)4] either as radiolabeled probes for hybridization with restricted citrus DNA or as single primers in polymerase chain reaction amplification experiments with total genomic DNA. We tested the ability of the sequences to discriminate between seedlings of zygotic or nucellar origin in the progeny of a Volkamer lemon (Citrus volkameriana Ten. & Pasq.) tree. The genetic variability within two species [Citrus sinensis (L.) Osbeck (sweet oranges) and Citrus reticulata Blanco and relatives (mandarins)] also was evaluated. DNA amplified fingerprinting with single primers was the more successful technique for discriminating between nucellar and zygotic seedlings. Although we were not able to distinguish among 10 cultivars of C. sinensis, all 10 C. reticulata cultivars tested were distinguishable. However, it still is difficult to identify the putative parents of a hybrid plant when the two parental genomes are closely related.

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David M. Eissenstat, James P. Syvertsen, Thomas J. Dean, Jon D. Johnson, and George Yelenosky

The combined effects of O3 and acid rain on freeze resistance, growth, and mineral nutrition were studied using broadleaf-evergreen citrus and avocado trees. Using a factorial design, `Ruby red' grapefruit (Citrus paradisi L.) trees on either Volkamer lemon (Citrus volkameriana Ten. & Pasq.) or sour orange (Citrus aurantium L.) rootstock and `Pancho' avocado trees (Persea americana Mill.) on `Waldin' rootstock were exposed to O3 and acid rain for 8 months in open-top chambers under field conditions. The O3 treatments were one-third ambient (0.3X), ambient (1X), twice ambient (2X), or thrice ambient (3X). Ambient O3 concentrations averaged 39.1 nl·liter-3 over a 12-hour day. The acid rain treatments had a pH of 3.3, 4.3, or 5.3 and were applied to simulate long-term rainfall averages. In general, the effects of acid rain on growth and freeze resistance were small. Rain of high acidity (pH = 3.3) offset the negative effects of O3 on growth (total leaf mass) in avocado and grapefruit/Volkamer lemon trees. In contrast, rain of high acidity magnified the detrimental effects of O3 on electrolyte leakage of leaf disks at subzero temperatures, especially for citrus. Freeze resistance, determined by stem and whole-plant survival following freezing temperatures, was lower in the most rapidly growing trees. Consequently, for trees exposed to a combination of O3 and acidic rain, leaf electrolyte leakage did not correlate significantly with stem survival of freezing temperatures. We conclude that the danger of acid rain to citrus and avocado in Florida is rather slight and would only present a potential problem in the presence of extremely high O3.

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John D. Lea-Cox and James P. Syvertsen

Eighteen, 4-year-old Grapefruit (Citrus paradisi) cv. `Redblush' trees on either Volkamer lemon (C. volkameriana = VL) or Sour orange (C. aurantium = SO) rootstocks were grown in 7.6 kiloliter drainage lysimeters in a Candler fine sand (Typic Quartzipsamments), and fertilized with nitrogen (N) in 40 split applications at 76, 140 and 336 g N year-1 (= 0.2, 0.4 and 0.9 x the recommended annual rate). Labelled 15N was substituted for the N in a single fertigation at each rate at the time of fruit set the following year, to determine N uptake, allocation and leaching losses. “Nitrogen-uptake and allocation were primarily determined by the sink demand of fruit and vegetative growth, which in turn were strongly influenced by rootstock species. Larger trees on VL required at least 336 g N yr-1 to maintain high growth rates whereas smaller trees on SO of the same age only required 140 g N year-1. Of the 15N applied at the 336 g N rate to the SO trees, 39% still remained in the soil profile after 29 days. With optimally scheduled irrigations, 15N leached below the root zone was less than 3% of that applied after 29 days, regardless of rate. However, 17% of the applied 15N was recovered from a blank (no tree) lysimeter tank. Total 15N recovery ranged from 55-84% of that applied, indicating that a sizeable fraction of the 15N applied may have been lost through denitrification.

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Mongi Zekri

Since the environmental conditions and cultural practices are unique in southwest Florida, a study was performed to determine the horticultural adaptability and performance of `Valencia' orange trees on four commercial rootstocks grown in a high-density planting. The trees were planted in 1991 on a flatwoods soil in a commercial grove at a density of 627 trees/ha. Leaf mineral concentration, growth, and fruit production and quality were measured 4 and 7 years after planting. Compared to Florida citrus leaf standards, leaf mineral concentration values were within the optimum to the high range. Yield efficiency expressed as kilograms of solids per cubed meter of canopy and juice quality in terms of juice content, soluble solids concentration, and kilograms of solids per box increased with tree age. Tree and fruit size were the highest for Volkamer lemon (Volk) and the lowest for Cleopatra mandarin (Cleo). Fruit yield was the highest for Volk. However, yield expressed in kilograms of solids per hectare was not significantly different between Volk and `Swingle' citrumelo (Swi) due to the higher solids per box for Swi. Yield efficiency was also higher for Swi than for Volk. Juice content and soluble solids in the fruit were higher for Swi and Cleo than for the lemon rootstocks. Financial analysis showed that at high-density planting, trees on Swi were the most profitable. On noncalcareous flatwoods soil, Swi is the best suited rootstock for high-density planting.