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Sibylle Stoeckli, Karsten Mody, Silvia Dorn, and Markus Kellerhals

resistance to two lepidopteran, three aphid, and one mite species. Herbivore assessment was carried out on 160 apple genotypes in study Years 1 and 2 (2005 and 2006). The number of codling moth ( Cydia pomonella L.) larval penetrations in fruits was

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Kathleen Delate, Andrea McKern, Robert Turnbull, James T.S. Walker, Richard Volz, Allan White, Vincent Bus, Dave Rogers, Lyn Cole, Natalie How, Sarah Guernsey, and Jason Johnston

moth ( Cydia pomonella ) granulosis virus (CpGV) for codling moth control. Because the virus particles must be consumed by the larvae, products such as Madex (Key Industries, Ltd., Auckland, NZ) in Europe and New Zealand and Cyd-X (Certis USA, LLC

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Paul Randall, Peter Sholberg, Gary Judd, and Joan Cossentine

Codling moth, Cydia pomonella L. (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae), is a key pest of pome fruits worldwide. This insect overwinters as a diapausing, fifth-instar larva located within a silken cocoon usually constructed in cracks or crevices of bark on

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Liming Chen, Matthew Wallhead, Michael Reding, Leona Horst, and Heping Zhu

, P.W. 2017 Stability of Cacopsylla pyricola (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) populations in pacific northwest pear orchards managed with long-term mating disruption for Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae) Insects 8 105 Anco, D.J. Ellis, M.A. 2011

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Rachel Leisso, Bridgid Jarrett, Katrina Mendrey, and Zachariah Miller

Codling moth ( Cydia pomonella ) is a major insect pest of apple ( Malus domestica ) almost everywhere the fruit is grown. In Montana, frass-filled exit holes left by codling moth larva (strikes) were apparent on more than 50% of apple fruit in

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Kathleen Delate, Andrea McKern, Robert Turnbull, James T.S. Walker, Richard Volz, Allan White, Vincent Bus, Dave Rogers, Lyn Cole, Natalie How, Sarah Guernsey, and Jason Johnston

, L.G. Rehfield-Ray, L.M. 2006 Confirmation and efficacy tests against codling moth, Cydia pomonella , and oriental fruit moth, Grapholitha molesta , in apples using combined heat and controlled atmosphere treatments J. Econ

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J.D. Hansen, M.A. Watkins, M.L. Heidt, and P.A. Anderson

Codling moth [Cydia pomonella (Lepidoptera: Tortricidae)], found in exported apples (Malus sylvestris), can disrupt international markets. Cold storage at 1.1 °C was examined for possible control of three physiological larval states in ‘Fuji’ apples: diapausing (overwintering), diapause-destined, and nondiapausing. All nondiapausing larvae were dead within 12 weeks, diapaused-destined larvae were controlled by the seventh week, yet more than half of the original populations of diapausing larvae were still alive after 11 weeks. Because the diapaused-destined larvae were younger than the nondiapausing larvae, they may have been more susceptible to cold. Because larvae normally diapause outside the fruit, cold storage would not be applicable for controlling larvae in this state.

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R.T. Hinsch, C.M. Harris, P.L. Hartsell, and J.C. Tebbets

California nectarines [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch. var. nectarina (Ait) Maxim.] packed in single-layer corrugated fiberboard boxes were fumigated with methyl bromide (MB) at a rate of 48 g·m-3 for 21 hours at 21C and normal atmospheric pressure and a 50% load (v/v) as a quarantine treatment for codling moth (Cydia pomonella L.). When the boxes were loosely stacked with spaces between them or tightly stacked and forced-air fumigated, concentration multiplied by time (C × T) relationships were > 68 g·m-3·h-1, which is recommended for efficacy. Tightly stacked boxes that were not forced-air fumigated had C × T products <68 g·m-3·h-1. Organic bromide residues were <0.001 μg·g-1 and inorganic bromide residues were < 7.0 μg·g-1 after 3 days. A trace to slightly phytotoxic response was observed in `Summer Grand' and `Fantasia' nectarines in 1989 but not in 1990.

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Suzette P. Galinato, R. Karina Gallardo, David M. Granatstein, and Mike Willett

Apple maggot (Rhagoletis pomonella) is an insect pest of apple (Malus domestica) that is currently limited in extent in the commercial production areas of Washington State thanks to a quarantine program. We estimate the costs to the Washington economy if this pest were to spread more widely. Apple maggot control costs are related to the pressure of codling moth (Cydia pomonella), the most prevalent insect pest in commercial apple production in Washington State. It was found that the losses for the Washington apple industry’s range from $510 million to $557 million, depending on the codling moth pressure. Our findings underscore the importance of an efficient quarantine program that minimized the risk of spreading the pest along with additional costs associated with quarantined areas.

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K.C. Shellie, L.G. Neven, and S.R. Drake

Sweet cherries (Prunus avium `Bing') exposed to 113 or 117 °F (45 or 47 °C) in an atmosphere of 1% oxygen with 15% carbon dioxide (balance nitrogen) were heated to a maximum center temperature of 112 or 115 °F (44 or 46 °C) in 41 or 27 min, respectively. Heated cherries had similar incidence of pitting and decay, and similar preference ratings after 14 days of storage at 34 °F (1 °C) as nonheated or methyl bromide fumigated fruit. Heated cherries and methyl bromide fumigated cherries were less firm after 14 days of cold storage than nonheated, control fruit. The stems of methyl bromide fumigated cherries were less green than heated or nonheated cherries. Cherries exposed to 113 °F had lower titratable acidity than nonheated cherries, fumigated cherries, or cherries exposed to 117 °F. Cherry quality after 14 days of cold storage was not affected by hydrocooling before heating (5 min in water at 34 °F) or by method of cooling after heating (hydrocooling, forced air cooling, or static air cooling). Cherries stored for 14 days at 34 °F in 6% oxygen with 17% carbon dioxide (balance nitrogen) had similar market quality as cherries stored in air at 34 °F. Results suggest that `Bing' sweet cherry can tolerate heating in an atmosphere of low oxygen containing elevated carbon dioxide at doses that may provide quarantine security against codling moth (Cydia pomonella) and western cherry fruit fly (Rhagoletis cingulata).