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S. Ball, Y.L. Qian, and C. Stushnoff

No information is available regarding endogenous soluble carbohydrate accumulation in buffalograss [Buchloe dactyloides (Nutt.) Engelm.] during cold acclimation. The objective of this study was to determine composition of soluble carbohydrates and their relationship to freezing tolerance in two buffalograss cultivars, 609 and NE 91-118, with different freezing tolerances. The experiment was conducted under natural cold acclimation conditions in two consecutive years in Fort Collins, Colo. Based upon average LT50 (subfreezing temperature resulting in 50% mortality) from seven sampling intervals in 1998-99 and six sampling intervals in 1999-2000, `NE 91-118' survived 4.5 °C and 4.9 °C colder temperatures than `609', during the 1998-1999 and 1999-2000 winter seasons, respectively. Glucose, fructose, sucrose, and raffinose were found in both cultivars in both years, and were generally higher in acclimated than pre- and post-acclimated stolons. Stachyose was not present in sufficient quantities for quantification. Cultivar NE 91-118 contained 63% to 77% more glucose and 41% to 51% more raffinose than `609' in the 1998-99 and 1999-2000 winter seasons, respectively. In 1999-2000, fructose content in `NE 91-118' was significantly higher than that of `609'. A significant negative correlation was found between LT50 vs. all carbohydrates in 1999-2000, and LT50 vs. sucrose and raffinose in 1998-99. Results suggest that soluble carbohydrates are important in freezing tolerance of buffalograss.

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P.G. Johnson

We investigated mixtures of buffalograss [Buchloë dactyloides (Nutt.) Engelm. `Texoka' and `Cody'] and fine fescue species (Festuca rubra ssp. rubra L. `Vista', F. ovina var. glauca Lam. `Minotaur', F. rubra ssp. commutata Gaud. `Jamestown II') or stream-bank wheatgrass [Agropyron riparium Scribn. & Smith `Sodar'; syn. Elymus lanceolatus (Scribn. & Smith) Gould subsp. lanceolatus] as a low-maintenance turf with low irrigation requirements and season-long green color and growth. Buffalograss plots in Logan, Utah, were overseeded with fine fescue and streambank wheatgrass at two seeding rates. Plots of fine fescue, wheatgrass, or buffalograss alone were also established. At 50% evapotranspiration (ETo) replacement, fine fescues dominated the mixtures with no differences due to seeding rates. Wheatgrass mixture plots were unacceptable in quality. Buffalograss control plots and mixtures were similar for turfgrass quality in August, and fine fescue controls and mixtures were similar in spring and fall. The mixtures performed well in the low-maintenance turf situation, but dominance of fine fescue over the buffalograss limits the potential of these specific mixtures.

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Y.L. Qian and M.C. Engelke

Determining the appropriate level of irrigation for turfgrasses is vital to the health of the turfgrass and the conservation of water. The linear gradient irrigation system (LGIS) allows long-term assessment of turf performance under continuous irrigation gradients from excess to no irrigation. The objectives of this study were to: 1) evaluate the minimum irrigation requirements and relative drought resistance of `Rebel II' tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.), `Meyer' zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.), `Tifway' bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.], `Prairie' buffalograss [Buchloe dactyloides (Nutt.) Engelm], and `Nortam' St. Augustinegrass [Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walt.) Kuntze]; and 2) evaluate the long-term effects of irrigation levels on turf persistence, weed invasion, and disease incidence for the five selected turfgrasses under field conditions. Turf was sodded under LGIS with an irrigation gradient ranging from 120% Class A pan evaporation (Ep) to natural precipitation, along a 20-m turf area. Evaluation during the summers of 1993–96 indicated that grasses differed in drought resistance and persistence under variable irrigation regimes. Irrigation (Ep) required to maintain acceptable turf quality for respective grasses was `Rebel II' (67%), `Meyer' (68%), `Nortam' (44%), `Tifway' (35%), and `Prairie' (26%). Higher dollar spot (Sclerotinia homoeocarpa Bennett) infection was observed at 115% Ep irrigation regime in `Tifway' bermudagrass, whereas gray leaf spot [Pyricularia grisea (Hebert) Barr] was observed only at 10% Ep irrigation regime in St. Augustinegrass plots. An outbreak of brown patch (Rhizoctonia solani Kuehn.) occurred in Sept. 1996 in St. Augustinegrass plots receiving irrigation at >80% Ep.

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Thomas E. Eickhoff, Tiffany M. Heng-Moss, and Frederick P. Baxendale

). Although the original report of B. occiduus as a turfgrass pest was on buffalograss [ Buchloë dactyloides (Nutall) Engelmann], ( Baxendale et al., 1999 ) it has since emerged as a serious pest of zoysiagrass ( Zoysia japonica Steudel) turf in areas of

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Jared. A. Hoyle, Gerald M. Henry, Travis Williams, Aaron Holbrook, Tyler Cooper, Leslie L. Beck, and Andrew J. Hephner

/week to ensure adequate soil moisture and mown weekly at a height of 5 cm throughout the duration of the trial. Table 1. Treatment regimes z for bermudagrass ( Cynodon dactylon ) conversion to buffalograss ( Buchloe dactyloides ) research trials. Grid

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Luqi Li, Matthew D. Sousek, Keenan L. Amundsen, and Zachary J. Reicher

Buffalograss [ Buchloe dactyloides (Nutt.) Engelm.] is a warm-season grass native to the Great Plains of North America ( Wenger, 1943 ), and is commonly established from burs containing three to five caryopses (Beard, 1973; Quinn, 1987 ; Riordan

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Xiaobo Zhang, Derong Su, Luyi Ma, and Yan Zhao

selected for RAPD analysis on the basis of their high levels of polymorphism obtained from the randomly selected samples and were used to analyze all accessions of Buchloe dactyloides. Data collection and statistical analysis. For the statistical

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Kenton W. Peterson, Robert C. Shearman, Roch E. Gaussoin, Garald L. Horst, and Walter H. Schacht

, T.P. 1997 Sod production characteristics of turf-type Buchloe dactyloides Intl. Turfgrass Soc. Res. J. 8 455 465 Gilmore E.C. Jr Rogers, J.S. 1958 Heat units as a method of measuring maturity in corn

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Qi Zhang, Kevin Rue, and Sheng Wang

Buffalograss [ Buchloe dactyloides (Nutt.) Englem.] and blue grama [ Bouteloua gracilis (Willd. ex Kunth) Lag. ex Griffiths] are perennial, warm-season grass species native to the Great Plains. They have high tolerance to drought and heat stresses

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Songul Severmutlu, Nedim Mutlu, Ercan Gurbuz, Osman Gulsen, Murat Hocagil, Osman Karaguzel, Tiffany Heng-Moss, Robert C. Shearman, and Rock E. Gaussoin

. No. 45. Amer. Soc. Agron., Crop Sci. Soc. Amer., Soil Sci. Soc. Amer. Madison, WI Huang, B. 1999 Water relations and root activities of Buchloe dactyloides and Zoysia japonica in response to localized soil drying Plant Soil 208 179 186 Huang, B