kiwifruit ( Actinidia chinensis Pl.), the risks of the French orchard Fruit Growing 370 43 48 Brundell, D.J. 1975 Flower development of the chinese gooseberry ( Actinidia chinensis Planch.) N. Z. J. Bot. 13 473 483 doi: 10.1080/0028825X.1975.10430339 10
Timothy P. Hartmann, Justin J. Scheiner, Larry A. Stein, Andrew R. King, and Sam E. Feagely
Linda M. Boyd and Andrew M. Barnett
Vitis 29 199 221 Clark, C.J. McGlone, V.A. De Silva, N.H. Manning, M.A. Burdon, J. Mowat, A. 2004 Prediction of storage disorders of kiwifruit ( Actinidia chinensis ) based on visible-NIR spectral characteristics at harvest Postharvest Biol. Technol. 32
Ichiro Okuse and Kay Ryugo
‘Hayward’ kiwi fruit (Actinidia chinensis Planch.) samples collected at 20-day intervals after full bloom, May 18, until harvest in late October, were analyzed for carbohydrates, protein, organic acids including ascorbic and dehydroascorbic acids, tannins and polyphenolic substances, and cytokinin-like compounds. Starch is a predominant carbohydrate stored in the carpellary tissue which becomes hydrolyzed as the fruit approach maturity. Quinic acid was the main organic acid in young fruit which disappeared concurrently with the appearance of ascorbic acid. Mature fruit has low concentrations of tannins and polyphenolic substances but many raphides. Types of cytokinins changed as the fruit developed.
A.G. Calbo and N.F. Sommer
A technique to measure intercellular air volume was developed, based on the relationship between pressure reduction and air expansion, with correction for water vapor pressure. This technique yields air efflux curves, and the extracted air can be used to measure the gas composition of internal atmospheres. ‘Grevenstein’ apple (Malus domestica Borkh.), ‘Bartlett’ pear (Pyrus communis L.), ‘Hayward’ kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis Planchon), ‘Independence’ nectarine [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch], and ‘Russet’ potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) had intercellular volumes of 16.6%, 5.14%, 3.64%, 5.76%, and 1.64%, respectively.
M. L. Arpaia, F. G. Mitchell, A. A. Kader, and G. Mayer
The storage performance of kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis Planch. ‘Hayward’) was evaluated during and after storage for up to 24 weeks in 2% O2 and 0%, 3%, 5%, and 7% CO2 at 0°C. In addition, the influence of exposure to 0.5 or 1 μl·-liter−1 C2H4 on fruit performance was evaluated. The rate of softening during storage was reduced in proportion to the CO2 level and was accelerated by C2H4. The presence of white core inclusions under controlled atmospheres (CA) plus C2H4 was dependent upon the CO2 concentration. Two other physiological disorders were observed, and their severity was influenced by the combination of elevated CO2 and C2H4. The results suggest that there are 2 types of interactions between CO2 and C2H4, competition and synergism, which occur in kiwifruit during storage.
M. L. Arpaia, F. G. Mitchell, G. Mayer, and A. A. Kader
Establishment of a controlled atmosphere (CA) of 2% O2 + 5% CO2 within one day of harvest (no delay) or after a one-week delay in 0°C air retarded rapid softening of CA-stored kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis Planch. ‘Hayward’) during the 1st 6 weeks of 0° storage, relative to those kept in air or in CA established after a 2-week delay. Between the 6th and 24th week of storage, further softening in air-stored fruit was suppressed in all CA treatments, and the 2-week delay CA fruit always were significantly softer than those placed in CA within one day of harvest. The one-week delay treatment resulted in an intermediate flesh firmness. The rates of fruit softening at 0°-air after 12, 16, or 24 weeks of CA storage were comparable to those of fruit stored continuously in 0° air.
M. L. Arpaia, F. G. Mitchell, A. A. Kader, and G. Mayer
The effects of C2H4 concentration, duration and timing of exposure to C2H4, and temperature on storage performance of kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis Planch. ‘Hayward’) kept in air or a controlled atmosphere (CA) of 2% O2 + 5% CO2 were investigated. The presence of 0.05, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0, or 5.0 μl·liter−1 C2H4 in CA accelerated softening and induced white core inclusions (WCI) which increased with storage time and C2H4 concentration. There was no difference between a 2-week or a 4-week exposure to 0.5 μl·liter−1 C2H4 at the beginning of CA storage in the extent of softening or WCI incidence and severity, but prolonged exposures accelerated deterioration. The softening rate of kiwifruit kept in air or CA increased with temperature. The incidence and severity of WCI were much greater in fruit kept in CA + 0.5 μl·liter−1 C2H4 at 0° or 2.5°C than in fruit stored at 5° or 10°.
M.L. Arpaia, J.M. Labavitch, C. Greve, and A.A. Kader
Eight-one percent of the harvest firmness in kiwifruit (Actinidia chinensis Planch.) was lost during the first 8 weeks of storage in air at 0°C. As softening proceeded, a solubilization of uronic acids and the neutral sugar residues usually associated with pectic polymers (galactose, arabinose, and rhamnose) was detected. No consistent changes were noted in cellulose or the neutral sugars usually associated with hemicelluloses. Starch degradation also occurred coincident with softening. The amount of cell wall components soluble in water following fruit homogenization and the proportion of ethanol-precipitable pectic neutral sugars in this fraction increased during the first 8 weeks of storage. Once the rate of softening slowed (8 to 20 weeks), an equilibrium situation apparently was established between the amounts of the sugars formed in the ethanol-precipitable (i.e., polymeric) and ethanol-soluble fractions, suggesting that digestion of wall components continues after their excision from the insoluble wall matrix. Controlled atmosphere (2% O2+ 5% CO2; CA) storage retarded flesh softening relative to that measured in fruit held at 0° in air. A comparison of the changes in the cell wall components of air-stored and CA-stored kiwifruit suggests that, in addition to cell wall degrading processes contributing to fruit softening, starch degradation (possibly causing cell turgor changes) also may be involved in low-temperature softening of kiwifruit. The losses in water-insoluble cell wall pectic neutral sugars and uronic acids in air and CA storage were similar during the first 8 weeks of storage. Once softening slowed in CA, small but consistent reductions in the amount of cell wall turnover were observed as compared to air storage.
Guang-Lian Liao, Xiao-Biao Xu, Qing Liu, Min Zhong, Chun-Hui Huang, Dong-Feng Jia, and Xue-Yan Qu
seedlings of ‘Jinfeng’ kiwifruit ( Actinidia chinensis ) Eur. J. Hort. Sci. 84 5 1698 1702 10.1016/j.scienta.2019.05.038 Liao, G.L. He, Y.Q. Li, X.S. Zhong, M. Huang, C.H. Yi, S.Y. Liu, Q. Xu, X.B. 2019b Effects of bagging on fruit flavor quality and related
Yan-Chang Wang, Lei Zhang, Yu-Ping Man, Zuo-Zhou Li, and Rui Qin
. Compared with Actinidia arguta in which the predominant sugar of its fruit is sucrose, the main soluble sugars in the fruit of the present Actinidia chinensis accessions were glucose and fructose. In addition, L, Q, and R exhibited the deepest red color