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Anne M. Lockett, Dale A. Devitt, and Robert L. Morris

Population growth and water limitations in the southwestern United States have led to golf courses in many communities to be encouraged or mandated to transition to reuse water for irrigation purposes. A monitoring program was conducted on nine golf courses in the Las Vegas valley, NV, for 4.5 years to assess the impact of reuse water on soil–turfgrass systems {bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.], perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.), bentgrass (Agrostis palustris Huds.)}. The nine courses selected included three long-term reuse courses, three fresh water courses, and three courses expected to transition to reuse water during the monitoring period. Near-surface soil salinity varied from 1.5 to 40.0 dS·m−1 during the study period with the highest peaks occurring during summer months and on long-term reuse irrigated fairways. Although soil salinity at several depths on fairways and greens increased after transition to reuse water, this did not lead to a systematic decline in leaf xylem water potential (ΨL) or color. When the data were grouped as fresh, transition, or reuse irrigated, soil salinity on reuse courses were statistically higher (P < 0.05) than fresh and transitional courses, yet plant response on reuse courses was not statistically different (P > 0.05) than that observed on fresh courses. The fact that summertime plant parameter values often declined under lower salinity levels and the electrical conductivity of the irrigation water was rejected as a significant variable in all backward regression analysis to describe plant response indicated that management differed significantly from course to course. We conclude that proper irrigation management, based on a multitiered feedback system (soil–plant–atmospheric monitoring), should be able to maintain favorable salt balances and plant response as long as irrigation volumes are not restricted to where deficit irrigation occurs.

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Dale A. Devitt, Lena Wright, Daniel C. Bowman, Robert L. Morris, and Michelle Lockett

Irrigators in arid and semiarid regions that use reuse water must maintain positive leaching fractions (LFs) to minimize salt buildup in root zones. However, with the continuous feed of NO3-N in reuse water, imposing LFs can also lead to greater downward movement of NO3-N. It is therefore essential that deep movement of NO3-N be assessed relative to nitrogen loading under such conditions. We conducted a long-term monitoring program on nine golf course fairways in southern Nevada over a 1600-d period. The fairways were predominantly bermudagrass [Cynodon Dactylon (L.) Pers.; 35 of 36 site × years] overseeded with perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.; 8 of 9 courses). Courses were irrigated with fresh water, reuse water (tertiary treated municipal sewage effluent), or transitioned to reuse water during the study. Solution extraction cups were inserted at depths of 15, 45, 75, and 105 cm on fairways and sampled and analyzed for NO3-N on a monthly basis. Distribution patterns of NO3-N varied from site to site. Concentrations exceeding 100 mg·L−1 were observed at the 105-cm depth on all three long-term reuse courses. On the transitional courses, 72% of the variation in the yearly average NO3-N concentrations at the105-cm depth could be accounted for based on knowing the amount of fertilizer nitrogen (N) applied, the amount of reuse N applied, and the LF (Y = –42.5 + 0.18 fertilizer N + 0.26 reuse N –62.0 LF). Highest N fertilizer applications occurred on transition courses with little or no reduction in N applications after courses had transitioned to reuse water (pretransition courses 394 + 247 kg·ha−1 N/year versus posttransition courses 398 + 226 kg·ha−1 N/year). The results of this study indicate a need for a more scientific approach to N management on reuse irrigated courses.

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L.R. Nelson, J. Crowder, and H.B. Pemberton

Perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne) has traditionally been used to overseed warm-season grasses in the southern U.S. when warm-season sods are dormant due to chilling temperatures. In this study we investigated overseeding turf-type annual ryegrass (two cultivars of L. multiflorum and one cultivar of L. rigidum) and chewing fescue (Festuca rubra var. commutata) as well as perennial ryegrass onto a warm-season common bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) sod. The objective was to compare turf quality, turf color, and transition date of turf-type annuals with perennials and other cool-season grasses. Results for turf quality indicated that the annual ryegrass cultivars `Axcella' and `Panterra' (L. multiflorum) compared very well with perennials through March; however, in April and May, perennials were superior for quality. `Hardtop' fine fescue is a hard fescue (F. ovina var. duriuscula). It was inferior to the annuals for turf quality from December to April when the annuals began to die. For turf color, annuals had a lower rating compared to dark green perennials such as `Premier II', `Derby Supreme', or `Allstar'. `Panterra' was darker compared to `Axcella' in March and April. Chewing fescue was intermediate in color compared to annuals and perennials. For turf height, `Axcella' was taller than `Panterra', which were both taller than the perennials, and the fine fescues were shorter than the perennials. For transition in the spring, the annuals had a shorter transition and died about 1 month earlier than the perennials. `Transtar' (L. rigidum) had an earlier transition than the other annuals. The perennials tended to have a longer transition period. The fescues had a very long transition period and were similar to the perennials.

Open access

A.R. Mazur

Abstract

Field studies were conducted for 3 years on putting green turf to determine the influence of the plant growth regulators (PGR) pronamide (PRON), ethephon (ETHR), mefluidide (MEFL), and maleic hydrazide (MH) on the transition from overseeded perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L. ‘Yorktown II’) turf to hybrid bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) pers. × C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davy ‘Tifgreen’] in the spring. All PGR treatments were effective in increasing bermudagrass coverage over untreated grass; however, all reduced turf quality to some degree, with the exception of ETHR. The high PGR rates generally had lower turfgrass quality than the low rates. The March and early April application had the greatest bermudagrass coverage in 1982 and 1985, whereas the early March treatment generally had lower turfgrass quality than later applications. PRON at 0.28 kg·ha−1 applied as a single application in 1985 had higher initial bermudagrass coverage than when applied as split application, but split application maintained higher turfgrass quality than the single application. The split application of MEFL at 0.56 kg·ha−1 provided greater bermudagrass coverage than the single application when applied 6 Mar. or 3 Apr.; however, the split application resulted in lower quality than obtained from a single application applied on 6 Mar. in 1985. PRON at 0.28 kg·ha−1 and higher rates reduced growth and corresponding mowing requirements. Chemical names used: 1,2-dihydro-3,6-pyridazinedione (maleic hydrazide); N-(2,4-dimethyl-5-[([trifluoromethyl]-suIfonyl)amino]phenyl) acetamide (mefluidide); 2-chloroethyIphosphonic acid (ethephon); and 3,5-dichloro-(N-1,1-dimethyl-2-propynyI) benzamide (pronamide).

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Billy J. Johnson

Abstract

Two field experiments were initiated to determine the effects of herbicides on turfgrass quality and spring to summer transition from overseeded perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) back to ‘Tifway’ bermudagrass [Cynodon transvaalensis Burtt-Davy × Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.]. Pendimethalin applied at 3.3 kg·ha−1 in early March hastened the transition from ryegrass to bermudagrass in one of two years, but 1.7 kg·ha−1 applied in each of two applications did not. A single application of pronamide at 0.28 kg·ha−1 hastened the transition of overseeded ryegrass to bermudagrass without severely injuring either turfgrass. Oryzalin, oryzalin + benefin, or paraquat severely reduced the quality of ryegrass, while oxadiazon at 3.3 kg·ha−1, oxadiazon + benefin, glyphosate, metribuzin, or MSMA did not affect transition from overseeded ryegrass to bermudagrass when compared with nontreated turfgrass. This study illustrates the potential for some herbicides to enhance the transition from perennial ryegrass to bermudagrass. Chemical names used: N-butyl-N-ethyl-2,6-dinitro-4-(trifluoromethyl)benzenamine (benefin); dimethyl 2,3,5,6-tetrachloro-1,4-benzenedicarboxylate (DCPA); (±)-2-ethoxy-2,3-dihydro-3,3-dimethyl-5-benzofuranyl methanesulfonate (ethofumesate); N-(phosphonomethyl)glycine (glyphosate); N-[2,4-dimethyl-5-[[(trifluoromethyl) sulfonyl]amino]phenyI]acetamide (mefluidide); 4-amino-6-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-3-(methylthiol)-1,2,4-triazin-5(4H)-one (metribuzin); monosodium salt of MAA (MSMA); 4-(dipropylamino)-3,5-dinitrobenzene-sulfonamide (oryzalin); 3-[2,4-dichloro-5-(1-methylethoxy)-phenyl)-5-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1,3,4-oxadiazol-2-(3H)-one-(oxadiazon); 1,1'-dimethyl-4,4'-bipyridinium salts (paraquat); N-(1-ethylpropyl)-3,4-dimethyl-2,6-dinitrobenzamine (pendimethalin); and 3,5-dichloro(N-1,1-dimethyl-2-propynyl)benamide (pronamide).

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Héctor Mario Quiroga-Garza and Geno A. Picchioni

Total plant biomass, shoot growth rate, and the periodicity in shoot growth and color of hybrid bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. × C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davy `Tifgreen'] in response to slow-release fertilizer N sources, rates, and application frequencies were studied in two, 120-day greenhouse studies. Plugs were planted in plastic cylinders filled with a growing medium of 93 sand: 7 peat moss (w/w). The first experiment was completed under progressively increasing photoperiod (13.1 to 14.9 hours) typical of the long-day requirements for bermudagrass growth. The second experiment occurred under progressively decreasing photoperiod (13.7 to 10.7 hours) representative of autumnal growing conditions and declining growth and N demand. Urea (URE), sulfur-coated urea (SCU), and hydroform (HYD, methylene urea polymers) were broadcast at N rates of 100 or 200 kg·ha-1 and at frequencies of 20 or 40 days. Bermudagrass was clipped at 3-day intervals and the average daily clipping growth rate (increase in shoot dry matter; DM) reached a maximum of 11.5 g·m-2 per day. Use of the least soluble source, HYD, produced the lowest total clipping DM, and at low HYD rate and frequency, leaf color intensity was frequently below the accepted standard of 7, in the scale from 1 “tan” to 9 “dark green”. A greater responsiveness of bermudagrass to N rate and application frequency (increased clipping growth rate and color intensification upon N application) occurred under increasing photoperiodic conditions as compared to decreasing photoperiodic conditions. Both clipping growth and color changed cyclically through time and mainly under long-day photoperiod (>12 hours), with greater oscillation at longer fertilization interval (40 days). With either SCU or URE, at low N rate and frequency (total N application of 0.25 g·m-2 per day), clipping growth rates were above 4 g·m-2 per day, and turf color was at or above the minimum quality standard through most of the growing period. Higher total SCU and URE application rates, previously shown to increase N leaching losses in these experimental conditions, produced significantly more clipping growth and did not appear to intensify color sufficient to warrant the increased risk of N loss.

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D.W. Williams and P.B. Burrus

Perennial ryegrass (PR) (Lolium perenne L.) is often used as a low-mowed turf in the transition climatic zone. However, control of the fungal disease gray leaf spot (Pyricularia grisea (Cooke) Sacc.) has drastically increased the cost of PR management. Seeded bermudagrasses (SB) [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] are viable options for turfgrass management operations with limited pesticide budgets. Field trials in 2000 and 2001 tested the effects of two herbicides and several plant growth regulators (PGR) during renovation of mature PR to either of two cultivars of SB. The herbicides glyphosate and pronamide, and the PGR's trinexapac-ethyl, ethephon, paclobutrazol, and flurprimidol were applied at label rates to mature stands of PR. `Mirage' and `Yukon' SB were seeded separately either 1 or 7 days after applications (DAA) of chemicals. SB establishment, first-winter survival, and turfgrass quality (TQ) were rated and compared to an untreated control. Results indicated that only applications of glyphosate resulted in acceptable renovation of PR to SB, but also resulted in significantly lower (P< 0.05) TQ during the transition. Applications of pronamide resulted in significantly less (P < 0.05) SB transition than did applications of glyphosate, but pronamide plots maintained higher TQ. None of the PRG treatements had a significant effect (P < 0.05) on SB transition. There were no consistent significant effects (P < 0.05) due to DAA among any of the chemicals evaluated. First-winter survival was significantly higher (P < 0.05) with `Yukon' than with `Mirage' in both years. We conclude that among the chemicals tested, only applications of glyphosate resulted in acceptable transition of PR to SB, but a significant reduction of TQ should be expected during the transition. Chemical names used: [N-(phosphonomethyl) glycine] (glyphosate); [3.5-dichloro-N-(1,1-dimethyl-2-propynyl)-benzamide] (pronamide); [(2-chloroethyl) phosphonic acid] (ethephon); [4-(cyclopropyl-α-hydroxy-methylene)-3,5-dioxo-cyclohexane-cabroxylic acid ethyl ester] (trinexapac-ethyl); [(±)-(R*R*)β-[(4-chlorophenyl)-methyl]-α-(1,1-dimethylethyl)-1H-1,2,4-triazole-1-ethanol] (paclobutrazol); [α-(1-methylethyl)-α-[4-(trifluromethoxy)phenyl]-5-pyrmidinemethanol] (flurprimidol).

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Robert L. Green, Grant J. Klein, Francisco Merino, and Victor Gibeault

Bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers × C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davy] greens across the southern United States are normally overseeded in the fall to provide a uniform green playing surface and tolerance to wear during winter bermudagrass dormancy. The spring transition from overseed grass back to bermudagrass is a major problem associated with overseeding because there can be a decline in putting green quality and playability. There have been recommendations, but relatively few published reports, on the effect of treatments associated with seedbed preparation and overseeding on bermudagrass spring transition. The objective of this 2-year study was to determine if spring transition of an overseeded `Tifgreen' bermudagrass green was influenced by fall-applied scalping level, chemical, and seed rate treatments. Treatment factors and levels were designed to reflect the range of practices used by golf course superintendents in the region at the time of the study. The green was located in the Palm Springs, Calif. area, which has relatively mild winters and a low desert, southern Calif. climate. The first year of the study was from September 1996 to July 1997 and the second year was from September1997 to July 1998. Scalping level treatments included a moderate and severe verticut and scalp; chemical treatments included a check, trinexapac-ethyl at two rates, and diquat; and seed rate treatments included a high and low rate of a mixture of `Seville' perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and `Sabre' rough bluegrass (Poa trivialis L.). The plot was maintained under golf course conditions and a traffic simulator was used to simulate golfer traffic. Visual ratings of percent green bermudagrass coverage were taken every 3 weeks from 20 Feb. 1997 to 29 July 1997 and from 11 Nov. 1997 to 22 July 1998. Visual turfgrass quality ratings were taken during the second year of the study. Results showed that spring transition was not influenced by fall-applied treatments during both years. Also, visual turfgrass quality was not influenced during the second year. Chemical names used [4(cyclopropyl-_hydroxy-methylene)-3,5-dioxocyclohexanecarboxylic acid ethyl ester (trinexapac-ethyl); 9,10-dihydro-8a-, 10a-diazoniaphenanthrene (diquat).

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Robert L. Green, Grant J. Klein, Francisco Merino, and Victor Gibeault

Bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers × C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davy] greens across the southern United States are normally overseeded in the fall to provide a uniform green playing surface and tolerance to wear during winter bermudagrass dormancy. The spring transition from overseed grass back to bermudagrass is a major problem associated with overseeding because there can be a decline in putting green quality and playability. There have been recommendations, but relatively few published reports, on the effect of treatments associated with seedbed preparation and overseeding on bermudagrass spring transition. The objective of this 2-year study was to determine if spring transition of an overseeded `Tifgreen' bermudagrass green was influenced by fall-applied scalping level, chemical, and seed rate treatments. Treatment factors and levels were designed to reflect the range of practices used by golf course superintendents in the region at the time of the study. The green was located in the Palm Springs, Calif., area, which has relatively mild winters and a low desert, southern California climate. The first year of the study was from Sept. 1996 to July 1997 and the second year was from Sept. 1997 to July 1998. Scalping level treatments included a moderate and severe verticut and scalp; chemical treatments included a check, trinexapac-ethyl at two rates, and diquat; and seed rate treatments included a high and low rate of a mixture of `Seville' perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and `Sabre' rough bluegrass (Poa trivialis L.). The plot was maintained under golf course conditions and a traffic simulator was used to simulate golfer traffic. Visual ratings of percent green bermudagrass coverage were taken every 3 weeks from 20 Feb. 1997 to 29 July 1997 and from 11 Nov. 1997 to 22 July 1998. Visual turfgrass quality ratings were taken during the second year of the study. Results showed that spring transition was not influenced by fall-applied treatments during both years. Also, visual turfgrass quality was not influenced during the second year. Chemical names used: [4(cyclopropyl-αhydroxy-methylene) -3,5-dioxocyclohexanecarboxylic acid ethyl ester (trinexapac-ethyl); 9,10-dihydro-8a-, 10a-diazoniaphenanthrene (diquat).

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G.A. Picchioni and Héctor M. Quiroga-Garza

Two greenhouse studies were conducted to trace the fate of fertilizer N in hybrid bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. × C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davy `Tifgreen'], and to estimate total plant N recovery and losses. The first experiment was performed during winter, with artificial light supplementing natural light to provide a photoperiod of 13.6 to 13.8 hours. The second experiment was conducted during summer and fall under only natural light conditions, with a progressively decreasing photoperiod of 13.7 to 11.1 hours. Urea (UR), ammonium sulfate (AS), and ammonium nitrate (AN) were labeled at 2 atom% 15N, and applied at N rates of 100 or 200 kg·ha-1 for 84 days (divided into six equal fractions and applied every 14 days). Fertilizer N source did not affect total dry matter (DM) accumulation by the plant components, but the high N rate increased clipping DM production under the longer photoperiod. Under the decreasing photoperiod, overall DM production was reduced, and clipping DM production was unaffected by increased N rate. Average N concentration of clippings varied between N sources, ranging from a high of 38.6 g·kg-1 DM with AS to a low of 34.7 g·kg-1 for UR. In Expt. 1, the greatest total plant N recovery [clippings, verdure (shoot material remaining after mowing), and thatch plus roots] occurred with AS (78.5%) and the lowest with UR (65.9%). In Expt. 2, these values declined to 53.0% and 38.0%, respectively. Urea fertilization resulted in the greatest N losses as a fraction of the N applied (33.6% to 61.5%) and AS fertilization the lowest (20.7% to 46.3%). In view of the greater N losses, UR may be a less suitable soluble N source for bermudagrass fertilization within the conditions of this study. In addition, late-season N fertilization may result in a significant waste of fertilizer N as bermudagrass progresses into autumnal dormancy when temperature, photoperiod, and irradiance decline and cause reduction in growth and N uptake.