Search Results

You are looking at 181 - 190 of 367 items for :

  • "Cynodon dactylon" x
  • Refine by Access: All x
Clear All
Free access

Geungjoo Lee, Ronny R. Duncan, and Robert N. Carrow

Evaluation of turfgrass salt tolerance is a basic strategy for selecting grasses that can be grown in areas with salt-affected water or soils. Our objectives were to determine the relative salinity tolerances of 32 grasses and to evaluate potential shoot-based criteria for assessing salinity tolerance. Shoot growth responses to salinity of 28 seashore paspalums (Paspalum vaginatum Swartz) and four bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) × C. transvalensis Burtt-Davy] cultivars were investigated under solution/sand culture in a greenhouse. Turfgrasses were grown in a sea-salt amended nutrient solution. Salinity ranges were 1.1 to 41.1 dS·m-1 based on electrical conductivity of the solution (ECw). Selection criteria to assess salt tolerance were absolute growth at 1.1 (ECw0), 24.8 (ECw24), 33.1 (ECw32), and 41.1 dS·m-1 (ECw40); threshold ECw; ECw for 25% and 50% growth reduction based on ECw0 growth; and leaf firing (LF) at ECw0 and ECw40 (LF0 and LF40, respectively). Significant variations among 32 entries were observed for all shoot responses except threshold ECw. Ranges of values for shoot parameters were: inherent growth at ECw0 = 0.10 to 0.98 g dry weight (10-fold difference); growth at 24.8 dS·m-1 = 0.11 to 0.64 g; growth at 33.1 dS·m-1 = 0.09 to 0.54 g; growth at 41.4 dS·m-1 = 0.06 to 0.35 g; threshold ECW = 3.9 to 12.3 dS·m-1; ECw25 % = 14 to 38 dS·m-1; ECw50% = 22 to 43 dS·m-1; and LF40 = 7% to 41%. Results in this study indicated substantial genetic-based variation in salt tolerance within seashore paspalums. When evaluation of salt tolerance based on shoot responses is attempted at wide salinity levels up to 40 dS·m-1, all seven criteria exhibiting a significant F test can be used. Five entries (SI 92, SI 93-1, SI 91, SI 93-2, SI 89) were ranked in the top statistical grouping for all seven-growth parameters, followed by SI 90 ranked in six out of seven, and three paspalums (SI 94-1, `Sea Isle 1', and `Taliaferro') were ranked in five out of seven categories.

Full access

Tyler J. Koschnick, William T. Haller, and Alison M. Fox

Two formulations of the contact herbicide endothall are used to control submersed aquatic weeds. Waters treated with the amine or dipotassium salt formulations have irrigation restrictions varying from 7 to 25 days depending on the concentration of endothall applied. These water-use restrictions may be reduced for turfgrass if studies conclude there is no phytotoxicity to turf species irrigated with concentrations of endothall that may exist after an aquatic application. Two separate experiments were conducted to determine turfgrass tolerance to endothall in irrigation water on five species of grass: annual ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum), annual bluegrass (Poa annua), centipedegrass (Eremochloa ophiuroides), `Floratam' st. augustinegrass (Stenotaphrum secundatum), and `Tifton 419' bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon). Expt. 1 used constant concentrations of endothall; Expt. 2 used decreasing concentrations of endothall over time. Annual turf species (bluegrass and ryegrass) were generally more susceptible than perennial turfgrasses. Concentrations resulting in a 10% reduction in total dry weight harvested compared to control plants [effective concentration (EC10)] for the amine and dipotassium salt formulations were 10 and 14 mg·L–1 (ppm) a.i. on annual ryegrass, 10 and 16 mg·L–1 a.i. on annual bluegrass, 50 and 54 mg·L–1 a.i. on centipedegrass, 47 and 72 mg·L–1 a.i. for st. augustinegrass, and for bermudagrass 1301 and 908 mg·L–1 a.i. in Expt. 1. Expt. 2 resulted in EC10 values of 31 and 35 mg·L–1 a.i. on annual ryegrass, 7 and 12 mg·L–1 a.i. on annual bluegrass, 32 and 99 mg·L–1 a.i. on centipedegrass, 27 and 20 mg·L–1 a.i. on st. augustinegrass for the amine and dipotassium formulations of endothall respectively, and 958 mg·L–1 a.i. for the dipotassium formulation on bermudagrass. There was no effect on bermudagrass dry weights when exposed to the amine formulation of endothall in Expt. 2 at concentrations up to 1600 mg·L–1 a.i. There is a low risk of inhibiting growth of turf species at endothall concentrations used for aquatic weed control considering the maximum use concentrations, typical uses of the products, and decomposition rates.

Free access

Robert L. Green, Grant J. Klein, Francisco Merino, and Victor Gibeault

Bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers × C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davy] greens across the southern United States are normally overseeded in the fall to provide a uniform green playing surface and tolerance to wear during winter bermudagrass dormancy. The spring transition from overseed grass back to bermudagrass is a major problem associated with overseeding because there can be a decline in putting green quality and playability. There have been recommendations, but relatively few published reports, on the effect of treatments associated with seedbed preparation and overseeding on bermudagrass spring transition. The objective of this 2-year study was to determine if spring transition of an overseeded `Tifgreen' bermudagrass green was influenced by fall-applied scalping level, chemical, and seed rate treatments. Treatment factors and levels were designed to reflect the range of practices used by golf course superintendents in the region at the time of the study. The green was located in the Palm Springs, Calif., area, which has relatively mild winters and a low desert, southern California climate. The first year of the study was from Sept. 1996 to July 1997 and the second year was from Sept. 1997 to July 1998. Scalping level treatments included a moderate and severe verticut and scalp; chemical treatments included a check, trinexapac-ethyl at two rates, and diquat; and seed rate treatments included a high and low rate of a mixture of `Seville' perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) and `Sabre' rough bluegrass (Poa trivialis L.). The plot was maintained under golf course conditions and a traffic simulator was used to simulate golfer traffic. Visual ratings of percent green bermudagrass coverage were taken every 3 weeks from 20 Feb. 1997 to 29 July 1997 and from 11 Nov. 1997 to 22 July 1998. Visual turfgrass quality ratings were taken during the second year of the study. Results showed that spring transition was not influenced by fall-applied treatments during both years. Also, visual turfgrass quality was not influenced during the second year. Chemical names used: [4(cyclopropyl-αhydroxy-methylene) -3,5-dioxocyclohexanecarboxylic acid ethyl ester (trinexapac-ethyl); 9,10-dihydro-8a-, 10a-diazoniaphenanthrene (diquat).

Free access

Geungjoo Lee, Robert N. Carrow, and Ronny R. Duncan

Seashore paspalum (Paspalum vaginatum Swartz) is a warm season turfgrass that survives in sand dunes along coastal sites and around brackish ponds or estuaries. The first exposure to salt stress normally occurs in the rhizosphere for persistent turfgrass. Information on diversity in salinity tolerance of seashore paspalums is limited. From Apr. to Oct. 1997, eight seashore paspalum ecotypes (SI 94-1, SI 92, SI 94-2, `Sea Isle 1', `Excalibur', `Sea Isle 2000', `Salam', `Adalayd') and four bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon × C. transvaalensis Butt-Davy) cultivars (`Tifgreen', `Tifway', `TifSport', `TifEagle') were investigated for levels of salinity tolerance based on root and verdure responses in nutrient/sand culture under greenhouse conditions. Different salt levels (1.1 to 41.1 dS·m-1) were created with sea salt. Measurements were taken for absolute growth at 1.1 (ECw0; electrical conductivity of water), 24.8 (ECw24), 33.1 (ECw 32), and 41.1 dS·m-1 (ECw40), threshold ECw, and ECw for 25% growth reduction from ECw0 growth (ECw25%). Varying levels of salinity tolerance among the 12 entries were observed based on root, verdure, and total plant yield. Ranges of root characteristics were inherent growth (ECw0) = 0.20 to 0.61 g dry weight (DW); growth at ECw24 = 0.11 to 0.47 g; growth at ECw32 = 0.13 to 0.50 g; growth at ECw40 = 0.13 to 0.50 g; threshold ECw = 3.1 to 9.9 dS·m-1; and ECw25% = 23 to 39 dS·m-1. For verdure, ranges were inherent growth at ECw0 = 0.40 to 1.07 g DW; growth at ECw40 = 0.31 to 0.84 g; and ratio of yields at ECw40 to ECw0 = 0.54 to 1.03. Ranges for total growth were inherent growth at ECw0 = 0.72 to 2.66 g DW; growth at ECw24 = 0.55 to 2.23 g; growth at ECw32 = 0.54 to 2.08 g; growth at ECw40 = 0.52 to 1.66 g; threshold ECw = 2.3 to 12.8 dS·m-1; and ECw25% = 16 to 38 dS·m-1. Significant salinity tolerance differences existed among seashore paspalums and bermudagrasses as demonstrated by root, verdure, and total growth measurements. When grasses were ranked across all criteria exhibiting a significant F test based on root, verdure, and total growth, the most tolerant ecotypes were SI 94-1 and SI 92. Salinity tolerance of bermudagrass cultivars was relatively lower than SI 94-1 and SI 92. For assessing salinity tolerance, minimum evaluation criteria must include absolute growth at ECw0 and ECw 40 dS·m-1 for halophytes, but using all significant parameters of root and total yield is recommended for comprehensive evaluation.

Free access

Xinyi Zhang, Li Liao, Zhiyong Wang, Changjun Bai, and Jianxiu Liu

analysis. A total of 400 SRAP primer combinations were used for PCR amplification ( Table 3 ). Thirty primer combinations were selected ( Table 4 ) for further analysis. PCR amplification was based on the technique previously described for Cynodon dactylon

Free access

Patrick A. Jones, James T. Brosnan, Gregory K. Breeden, José J. Vargas, Brandon J. Horvath, and John C. Sorochan

frequently used on golf courses in place of common bermudagrass ( Cynodon dactylon L.) in that they offer high turfgrass quality at low mowing heights in addition to being able to tolerate and quickly recover from traffic ( McCarty and Miller, 2002 ; Thoms

Free access

James T. Brosnan, Gregory K. Breeden, and Patrick E. McCullough

( Cynodon dactylon L.) from Mar. to Sept. 2009 at the University of Tennessee–Knoxville established on a Sequatchie loam soil (fine-loamy, siliceous, semiactive, thermic humic Hapludult) measuring 6.2 in soil pH and 2.1% in organic matter content. The

Free access

Xi Xiong, Ken Diesburg, and Daniel T. Lloyd

.27 kg·ha −1 , which is eight times the labeled rate. Similarly, after winter application of glyphosate at 0.84 kg·ha −1 for 20 years, a population of glyphosate-resistant annual bluegrass was identified from a bermudagrass [ Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers

Free access

Patrick E. McCullough, Ted Whitwell, Lambert B. McCarty, and Haibo Liu

Hybrid bermudagrass ( Cynodon dactylon × C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davy) is widely used in the warm, humid climatic regions for golf course putting greens. Traditional bermudagrass putting green cultivars such as ‘Tifdwarf’ and ‘Tifgreen’ can

Free access

Karen R. Harris-Shultz, Brian M. Schwartz, Wayne W. Hanna, and Jeff A. Brady

Bermudagrass is a warm-season grass used as turf for home lawns, public parks, golf courses, sports fields, and for forage and soil conservation ( Zhang et al., 1999 ). Common bermudagrass [ Cynodon dactylon (2n = 4x = 36)] was first introduced