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G.C. Wright, W.B. McCloskey, and K.C. Taylor

97A ORAL SESSION 11 (Abstr. 072–077) Weed Control

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J. Gill, C. Laguë, N. Lehoux, G. Péloquin, J. Coulombe, and S. Yelle

29 POSTER SESSION 3 Weed Control/Cross-Commodity

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Elizabeth A. Wahle and John B. Masiunas

97A ORAL SESSION 11 (Abstr. 072–077) Weed Control

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Francis X. Mangan, Mary Jane Else, and Stephen J. Herbert

Field research was conducted in Deerfield, Mass. to study the effects of different cover crop species seeded between plastic mulch on weed pressure and pepper yield. A complete fertilizer was applied before plastic was laid on Sept. 13, 1991. Two cover crop treatments were seeded Sept. 13, 1991: white clover (Trifolium repens) alone and hairy vetch (Vicia villosa) in combination with winter rye (Secale cereale). On May 27, 1992 the vetch and rye were mow-killed with the biomass left on the soil surface. Annual rye (Lolium multiflorum) was then seeded on the same day as the third cover crop treatment. The remaining two treatments were a weedy check and a hand-weeded check. Peppers were transplanted into the plastic on May 31. Both the annual rye and clover were mowed three times over the course of the experiment with the biomass left between the plastic mulch. The white clover and annual rye were much more competitive with weed species than the dead mulch of vetch and rye. The three cover crop treatments had pepper yields that were severely depressed compared to the hand-weeded treatment. Among the three cover crop treatments, only the annual rye yielded more peppers than the weedy check.

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James E. Klett, David Staats, and David Hillock

143 POSTER SESSION 23 (Abstr. 849-859A) Ornament&/Floriculture: Weed & Root Growth Culture

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David E. Yarborough and Timothy M. Hess

Three hundred, 1 m2 plots with either 0%, 25%, 50%, 75% or 100% dogbane or bracken fern weed cover were used in the study. The experimental design was completely randomized with two species, three treatments (mow, wipe and untreated), five densities and 10 replications. One half of each plot had weed cover and one half was kept weed free in order to compare the effect of weed density on yield. Plots were treated with either 10% v/v glyphosate in a hand held weed-wiper, mowed with a string trimmer or left untreated. Wiping was more effective than mowing for reducing weed numbers in the following year. However, wiping reduced yields compared to mowing at higher weed densities. Mowing proved more effective at increasing yields up to 50% weed cover compared to wiping or not treating. Averages from 1991 and 1992 study indicate mowing increases yields compared to wiping up to 50% then tend to decline, but yields remain greater than not treating.

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L. Brandenberger, L.K. Wells, and B. Bostian

Because of the limited number of herbicides in spinach, beet, and swiss chard, a screening study was initiated to identify new preemergence herbicides. Field soil at the study was a fine sandy loam. The study was initiated on 8 Apr. 2004 at Bixby, Okla. Each plot had four direct seeded rows of spinach, beet and chard. 22 treatments were replicated four times in a RBD that included a nontreated check. Treatments used 12 preemergence herbicides. Herbicides were applied PRE with a research sprayer at 20 GPA in a 6-ft swath perpendicular to crop rows. The experimental area received 0.5 inch of irrigation after application. Callisto (mesotrione) and V10146 (Valent exp. compound) both resulted in 100% death of beet, chard and spinach seedlings. Herbicides that had injury at or below Dual Magnum included Pyramin (pyrazon), Nortron (ethofumesate), Lorox (linuron), and Bolero (thiobencarb) tank-mixed with Bio-Power. Yields were zero for the nontreated check and several treatments due to weed competition and the lack of crop plants in some plots. Treatments with the highest beet yields included Dual Magnum at 0.5 lbs/acre, Pyramin at 3.6 lbs/acre, and Outlook (dimethenamid-P) at 0.25 lbs/acre (11,822, 8,034, 8,010 lbs/acre respectively). Highest chard yields were from Dual Magnum at 0.5 lbs/acre, Pyramin at 3.6 lbs/acre, Outlook at 0.5 lbs/acre + Bio-Power, and Outlook at 0.5 lbs (12,753, 12,596, 11,495, and 10,563 lbs/acre, respectively). Spinach yields were highest for Dual Magnum at 0.5 lbs/acre, Define (flufenacet) at 0.3 lbs/acre, and Outlook at 0.5 lbs/acre + Bio-Power (4,465, 4,259, and 3,207 lbs/acre, respectively).

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Hannah M. Mathers and Luke T. Case

Two experiments were conducted at the The Ohio State University Waterman Farm, Columbus, on efficacy and phytotoxicity with evalautions at 30, 60, 90, and 120 DAT using dry weights and visual ratings 0–10 with >7 being commercially acceptable for efficacy, and 1–10 with <3 being commercially acceptable for phytotoxicity. The herbicide-treated mulches and herbicide–mulch application methods were compared to sprays of the five chemicals applied directly to the surfaces of the plots [oryzalin (oryzalin), (AS) Surflan (aqueous solution) 2 lb/acre (a.i.), flumioxazin (SureGuard WDG), 0.34 lb/acre (a.i.), acetochlor 76% (Harness 2.5 lb/acre (a.i.), dichlobenil (Casoron CS) 4 lb/acre (a.i.) and a combination of oryzalin and flumioxazin], two untreated mulches (pine and hardwood) and a weedy. Mulches were applied untreated, over the top of soil surfaces sprayed with the different herbicides. Mulches were also applied untreated to untreated soil surfaces and then sprayed with the different herbicides. Pretreated bark mulches were also evaluated and prepared by placing the mulches on a sheet of plastic, as a single layer thick and sprayed and allowed to dry for 48 hours. Twenty of 38 treatments gave efficacy rating of >7, pooled over all evaluation dates. One was a direct spray, Surflan + SureGuard (7.6). Three were pretreated mulches, Surflan + SureGuard (8.2), Harness (7.8) and Surflan (7.4) treated pine. None of the pretreated hardwood barks provided ratings of >7. Nine were treatments with the herbicides applied under the bark. Seven of the nine provided ratings of >8 and only one involved hardwood bark, Surflan + SureGuard under pine (9.1), Casoron under pine (8.9), Surflan under pine (8.7), Harness under pine (8.3), Harness under pine (8.0) and SureGuard under hardwood (8.0).

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Michael A. Norman, Kim D. Patten, and Sarangamat Gurusiddaiah

Three indicator species [rye (Secale cereale L.), radish (Raphanus sativus L.), and alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.)] and nonrooted cuttings of `Stevens' cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarpon Ait.) vines were grown in pots to establish the dose response levels for a sand-applied phytotoxin(s) from a crude extract of Pseudomonas syringae (strain 3366) culture. At 114 ppm [milligrams phytotoxin(s)/kilograms sand], the material was noninhibitory, whereas 1140 ppm reduced root and shoot growth significantly in all four species. In subsequent experiments, a 10-ppm dose controlled corn spurry (Spergula arvensis L.) and fireweed (Epilobium angustifolium L.) seedlings, while 103 ppm reduced root or shoot growth of cuttings of the perennial weeds birdsfoot trefoil (Lotus corniculatus L.) and silverleaf (Potentilla pacifica Howell). Root and shoot growth of partially rooted `McFarlin' cranberry vines was reduced at 103 and 563 ppm, respectively. The phytotoxin(s) could potentially control germinating annual weeds in newly established `Stevens' cranberry bogs.

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Russell W. Wallace and Robin R. Bellinder