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Lucas O’Meara, Matthew R. Chappell, and Marc W. van Iersel

Precision irrigation of ornamental plants can be a difficult task for nursery growers as a result of the lack of quantitative information regarding the specific water needs of different plant species. To prevent drought stress and ultimately crop

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B. Bravdo and E.L. Proebsting

The use of drip irrigation in orchards is increasing worldwide. Water shortage, prevention of ground water contamination, and improved production are the main reasons for this increase. The combination of partial wetting of the soil and control of the water penetration depth considerably increases the efficiency of irrigation. Recent technological improvements permit maintenance of a constant volume of irrigated soil in which gradients of soil water matric potentials and mineral concentrations exist from the irrigation point to the margins of the wetted zone. Because water and mineral uptake is a function of soil matric potential and mineral concentration, respectively, optimal uptake rates by certain portions of the root system always exist along these gradients for any given environmental conditions. Gradients of air concentration act similarly and permit maintenance of high water availability without any interference with root aeration. Due to the relative ability of the roots to exchange water, minerals, and, possibly, oxygen, the entire root system functions more efficiently compared to root systems under conventional irrigation methods. Physiological root restriction effects induce the formation of a large number of small roots with frequent branching. Consequently, the relative surface area for water and mineral absorption is increased several-fold, and the increased number of root tips that are known to be involved in production of hormones (such as gibberelins and cytokinins) is significant. Evidence for enhanced fruit bud formation under conditions of root restriction is presented here. Water treatment and filtration technology has improved, and clogging of surface or buried drip systems now can be minimized, which also increases the suitable range of water quality for use in drip systems.

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Rolston St. Hilaire, Dawn M. VanLeeuwen, and Patrick Torres

Urban areas in arid and semiarid regions continue to face water supply and demand challenges ( St. Hilaire et al., 2008 ). Some of the drivers of these challenges include accelerated population growth and enhanced economic activity of urban areas

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Xiaohui Lin, Hongbo Li, Shenggen He, Zhenpei Pang, Shuqin Lin, and Hongmei Li

al., 2019 ). These postharvest disorders of cut carnations are generally attributed to ethylene damage. Nonetheless, they are at least partially related to water deficit ( Liu et al., 2018 ; van Doorn, 2012 ). Water deficit symptoms in many cut

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Yuhung Lin and Yaling Qian

Water deficiency is common in the western United States, such as California, Nevada, Arizona, Utah, Colorado, and New Mexico, where climate is arid and semiarid. Approximately 30% to 50% of the potable water is used for outdoor landscape irrigation

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Ronald B. Sorensen and Tim L. Jones

We acknowledge Salopek 6U Farms for supplying the test site, farm equipment, water, and fertilizer to conduct this research. The cost of publishing this paper was defrayed in part by the payment of page charges. Under postal regulations

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Zhongchun Wang and Gary W. Stutte

Abbreviations: ψ P , leaf turgor potential; ψ s , leaf osmotic potential; ψ W , leaf water potential; DPM, disintegration per minute; MEOH, methanol; Pn, photosynthesis; RWC, relative water content; Rs, stomatal resistance. 1 Current address

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Donna A. Marshall, James M. Spiers, and Kenneth J. Curry

-term reductions in commercial blueberry fruit splitting are feasible. Blueberries absorb external water either through the peel or through the pedicel. Yet some blueberry cultivars tend to absorb more water than the berry can sustain, thus resulting in fruit

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David R. Bryla, Jim L. Gartung, and Bernadine C. Strik

Highbush blueberry ( Vaccinium corymbosum L.) is a shallow-rooted crop that is very susceptible to water stress ( Bryla and Strik, 2007 ; Mingeau et al., 2001 ). The plants usually require irrigation for commercial production, even in wet climates

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Travis Culpepper, Joseph Young, David T. Montague, Dana Sullivan, and Benjamin Wherley

Shifts in population dynamics from rural to urban have placed increased pressures on potable water supplies in many areas ( Alig et al., 2003 ; Vörösmarty et al., 2000 ). Property values increase with aesthetically pleasing landscapes ( Council of