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Augusto Ramírez-Godoy, María del Pilar Vera-Hoyos, Natalia Jiménez-Beltrán, and Hermann Restrepo-Díaz

viability of 90% for B. bassiana was obtained using the method described by Oliveira et al. (2015) . Foliar imidacloprid and B. bassiana sprays were applied early morning at 0 weeks after treatment (WAT). In both treatments, spray applications (2 L per

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Humberto Núñez-Moreno, James L. Walworth, Andrew P. Pond, and Michael W. Kilby

disadvantages. Foliar application is time-consuming, requires investment in expensive equipment, uses fuel, repeated traffic through the orchard causes soil compaction, and spray schedules interfere with management in the orchard (mainly with irrigation

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Hanan M. El-Hoseiny, Mohamed N. Helaly, Nabil I. Elsheery, and Shamel M. Alam-Eldein

promote plant growth and productivity ( Yakhin et al., 2017 ). A combined foliar application of N and B has alleviated the incidence of alternate bearing in ‘Zebda’ mango by 41% and improved yield by 5.9-fold compared with the untreated trees during the

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Bielinski M. Santos, Teresa P. Salame-Donoso, and Alicia J. Whidden

, but improved early flowering and fruit yield of pepper ( Makus, 2005 ). Other investigations on the effects of foliar applications of kaolin clay showed that the product failed to enhance tomato fruit yield ( Kahn and Damicone, 2008 ). Albregts and

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Uttara C. Samarakoon, James E. Faust, and John M. Dole

tissue development, strength and resistance to external stresses ( White and Broadley, 2003 ). Calcium nutrition has been used to improve postharvest performance in many horticultural products, for example, preharvest foliar Ca applications to fruits were

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Isaac T. Mertz, Nick E. Christians, and Adam W. Thoms

Apr., 27 Apr., 11 May, and 25 May 2015. Deionized water (pH 5.8) was used to dissolve N sources into solution before foliar application with a hand sprayer using a carrier volume of 87 gal/acre. Following application, treatments were allowed to dry on

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Yan Xu and Bingru Huang

and Yelverton, 2001 ; Stier and Rogers, 2001 ). As discussed earlier, the typical symptoms of summer bentgrass decline are leaf senescence and a reduction in overall canopy leaf density. Therefore, it is hypothesized that foliar application of TE may

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Thomas A. Obreza and Jerry B. Sartain

. However, there are special cases where foliar application of N and/or P is justified. It must be recognized that a positive response may be due to additional effects of the materials on tree physiology beyond simple enhancement of tree nutrition. Forms of

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Aditi Satpute, Bryce Meyering, and Ute Albrecht

conducted previously using 1000 mg/L and 2000 mg/L ABA to assess the suitable range of preharvest ABA concentrations. Foliar applications were conducted until runoff using a 1-L handheld sprayer. Time of application was 1000 to 1100 hr, and plants were

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Smiljana Goreta, Daniel I. Leskovar, and John L. Jifon

to enhance stand establishment. Foliar application of antitranspirants is a promising tool for regulating transpiration to maintain a favorable plant water status. Previous studies indicated that antitranspirant application can increase leaf water