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On-farm extension demonstrations are one of the best participatory research and educational resources available to extension specialists and county extension staff for presentation of new technology to agricultural producers. On-farm extension demonstration programs for intensive vegetable production, of which drip irrigation is a major component, can range from a complete package [3/4-ton truck, a trailer for transporting equipment, a tractor in the 36 to 42 HP range (i.e., Ford 3910) a plastic-laying machine, a bed press pan, hillers, and drip/overhead irrigation systems] with a price tag of about $40,000 used in a multistate, statewide, or multicounty program, to a small demonstration package using a household well source with a cost of about $250. The demonstration package used will depend on the scope of the program, local conditions, and economic realities.

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To provide educational opportunities for small and part-time farmers, a project was implemented using selected extension delivery methods. Individual methods or combinations of these were used to meet farmer informational needs. A comparison was made between person-to-person and self-directed (or nonperson-to-person) methods to see which means of receiving extension information farmers preferred. Findings indicated that person-to-person methods were not as useful as the self-directed methods.

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Commercial Horticulture Working Group, Extension Division, ASHS Compiled by Glenn `Cat' Taylor Department of Horticulture, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater

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Cultivar selection is one method used for the conservation of irrigation water. The primary objective of this research was to evaluate the evapotranspiration (ET) rates of 24 well-watered, turf-type bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.) genotypes under field conditions and established on a fritted clay root zone contained in plastic minilysimeter pots. A secondary objective was to correlate ET rate to leaf extension rate, a potential rapidly assessed predictor of the amount of leaf surface area present for ET. ET rates were determined by the water-balance method. Both the overall ET and leaf extension rate differed significantly among genotypes. ET rates were not correlated with leaf extension rates in individual years. Our data indicated a potential for water savings based on bermudagrass cultivar selection that was similar to the reported potential water savings based on warm-season turfgrass species selection.

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Sales of organic foods are one of the fastest growing segments of Washington state's food industry. In response to grower demand for information on organic and sustainable production practices, Washington State University (WSU) created an Extension Agricultural Systems position. This position has been instrumental in helping WSU gain the trust and recognition of organic growers. The position enabled WSU to demonstrate that it has a commitment to organic and sustainable research and extension activities. This paper describes the key activities of this position: 1) finding out research needs, 2) on-farm research approaches, 3) formation of regional research programs, and 4) creation of the WSU Food and Farm Connections Team. Grant funded on-farm research, interdisciplinary teams, and extension publications have been major emphases of the position.

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Value-added is the transformation of a raw product, usually an agricultural product, into a product that serves consumer demand better. The value-added product usually has an increased value and a higher return than the raw product. Kansas is one of the lowest ranking midwestern states for the number of value-added industries, although it is one of the greatest producers of raw agricultural products. An interdisciplinary team of Extension Specialists was created to promote and to serve small and medium size value-added businesses in the state. This poster will describe Kansas State University Cooperative Extension's approach to serving this clientele.

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A mass media water-quality program aimed at changing lawn and garden fertilization practices of homeowners successfully elicited responses from individuals by using local cooperative extension offices and newsletters. Traditional extension media tools, such as radio and news releases, were less successful in eliciting requests for further information. In addition, the program reached more people by transmitting the information in the form of a calendar than it reached in the first year through videotapes and slide sets created for use in public and Master Gardener training.

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The U.S. land-grant university system has been coming under increasing criticism by a number of extension professionals, as well as senior horticulturists, for its primary emphasis on basic research at the expense of applied research and service to horticultural industries. Once-strong extension/research/producer ties have been weakened, and this could result in further declines in general public support for land-grant universities. New approaches, including a “participatory model,” have been proposed as a mechanism to provide public feedback to land-grant scientists on relevant areas of basic science and encourage implementation of new technologies. However, our present expert/student relationship between research scientists and grower would be altered if the participatory model were to be adopted. Recognizing the limitations of existing horticultural production systems and visualizing new purposes for technology is the work of “experts,” not committees. The experience in North Carolina has been that a commodity specialist with a split research/extension appointment (20/80) is capable of providing leadership and guidance `to the scientific community on the problems and research needs of industry. In the case of introducing North Carolina farmers to “strawberry plasticulture,” the split appointment specialist had a role in: 1) identifying useful technological innovations from outside the university community (“reverse technology”); 2) conducting localized testing on promising new “hybrid growing systems”; and 3) extending new research findings to industry.

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1 Extension Horticulturist. 2 Extension Home Economist. Appreciation is expressed to the following in working on the CEVIS project: Robert Gammill, professor, computer science and electrical engineering David Rice, extension computer

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This experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of artificial light sources for light period extension on growth and flowering of statice `Sophia' and `Early Blue'. The seeds were sown on 10 June in a plug tray with 128 plugs. The seedlings were grown at the highland (800 m above sea level) for 50 days, and transplanted on 30 July in 20-cm-diameter plastic pots. High-pressure sodium lamps (HPS) (220V, 400W), incandescent lamps (Il) (220V, 200W), and fluorescent lamps (Fl) (220V, 40W) for day length extension (16-h photoperiod) as compared with short day (8-h photoperiod) were tested. HPS gave the greatest photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), but Fl did the smallest. HPS or Fl as compared with Il showed high ratio of red/far-red light. The leaves of plant grown under HPS were effective for light absorbance and chlorophyll contents. HPS promoted photosynthesis as much as light period extension, while more respiration than photosynthesis occurred under Fl affected by low PAR. Long day condition as light period extension hastened flowering of statice, and HPS or Il were more effective than Fl on flowering among artificial light sources tested. The light compensation and saturation points of statice were 50 and 500 μmol·m–2·s–1, respectively. Photosynthesis hastened at high temperature, but amount of photosynthesis at vegetative stage showed much higher than flowering stage under the condition below 20 °C These results indicated that day length extension with HPS increased productivity and quality for cut flower of statice at the highland in Korea.

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