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Valerie J. Mellano and Robert F. Bevacqua

Municipal sewage sludge, previously amended with Eucalyptus tree trimmings and composted, was incorporated to a depth of 30 cm at rates of 0, 12.3 and 24.6 dry MT/ha for a field planting of onion, snapdragon, turf and spinach. In a similar subsequent planting, the sludge compost was incorpoated to a depth of 10 cm. Additional treatments address the residual effect of the material. The results indicated sludge compost incorporated to a depth of 30 cm had no effect on crop yields, but when incorporated to a depth of 10 cm there was a significant increase in yields for all test crops. No buildup of heavy metals, soluble salts or changes in soil pH that would depress crop growth were detected.

Two greenhouse experiments employed equivalent rates and the same four crops. Two materials, sludge compost and heat-dried sludge were compared. The former contained composted Eucalyptus tree trimmings. The latter did not. The results showed both materials were equally beneficial to crop growth and the presence of Eucalyptus trimmings did not decrease yields

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Alexander A. Csizinszky

Tomato, Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. `Asgrow 1035', was planted in Summer–Fall (Aug.–Dec.) 1998 in a land previously amended with compost in Fall 1997 and then cropped in sequence with three vegetables during the Fall–Winter–Spring 1997–1998. Soil was an Eau Gallie fine sand, and the production system was a full-bed polyethylene mulch with micro-(trickle) irrigation. Experimental design was a split-split plot replicated three times. Main plots were N and K fertilizer treatments for the Fall 1998 tomato crop: fertilized (FT 98) or nonfertilized (NF 98). Subplots were two N–P–K treatments for the Fall 1997 tomato crop: fertilized (FT 97) or nonfertilized (NF 97). Sub-subplots were four compost rates 0x, 1x, 2x, and 3x (where 1x = 10 t·ha–1 `Disneyworld' compost) that were applied for the Fall 1997 tomato crop. Fruit size and yields were best in the plots that received N and K in Fall 1998 (FT 98) and N–P–K in Fall 1997 (FT 97). Early yields (harvests 1 + 2) were highest with the 2x and seasonal total yields (six harvests) were highest with the 3x compost rate. Very high residual soil P and Fe concentrations were detected with increasing compost rates.

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Handell Larco, Bernadine C. Strik, David R. Bryla, and Dan M. Sullivan

than N are present in organic fertilizers and are thus applied to the planting whether required or not. The impact of using organic fertilizers on plant and soil nutrient levels is largely unknown in most crops, including blueberry. Compost is also used

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S. D. Verkade and G. E. Fitzpatrick

The availability of organic components of potting media is limited due to supply and shipping costs. Disposal of solid waste has also become a serious problem for many municipalities. The utilization of solid waste compost in agricultural production promises to be a solution for both concerns. The objective of this experiment was to determine the efficacy of sol id waste compost from Miami, Dade County, Florida as a propagation medium for vegetative reproduction of ornamental and landscape plants.

Cuttings of Podocarpus macrophylla, Chrysobalanus icaro, and Impatiens spp. 1-13 cm long, treated with .2% NAA ppm IBA were rooted in media composed of sphagnum peatmoss: perlite (1:1) or Agrisoil (TM) solid waste compost: perlite (1:). Cutting rooted well in both media. Data included number of roots and root weight.

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S. D. Verkade and G. E. Fitzpatrick

The availability of organic components of potting media is limited due to supply and shipping costs. Disposal of solid waste has also become a serious problem for many municipalities. The utilization of solid waste compost in agricultural production promises to be a solution for both concerns. The objective of this experiment was to determine the efficacy of sol id waste compost from Miami, Dade County, Florida as a propagation medium for vegetative reproduction of ornamental and landscape plants.

Cuttings of Podocarpus macrophylla, Chrysobalanus icaro, and Impatiens spp. 1-13 cm long, treated with .2% NAA ppm IBA were rooted in media composed of sphagnum peatmoss: perlite (1:1) or Agrisoil (TM) solid waste compost: perlite (1:). Cutting rooted well in both media. Data included number of roots and root weight.

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Bryant C. Scharenbroch

organic matter and encompass a diverse group of materials (e.g., animal or green manure, peat, bone meal, biosolids, compost) ( Finck, 1982 ). The majority of the nutrients in these fertilizers is organically bound and slowly mineralized, so the potential

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Calvin Chong

During the past 20 years, the Ornamental Nursery Research Program at the former Horticultural Research Institute of Ontario (now part of the University of Guelph) has been conducting applied research dealing with environmentally friendly and sustainable nursery production practices with emphasis on container production. The use of farm, industrial, and consumer waste by-products as amendments in nursery substrates has been a major focus. The program has evaluated hundreds of potting mixes derived from individual or combined, raw or composted waste by-products including spent mushroom compost, turkey litter compost, paper mill sludge, municipal waste compost, corrugated cardboard, apple pomace, wood chips from pallets, pulverized glass, and various types of tree barks. With few exceptions, all the above waste by-products tested under our cultural conditions provided acceptable to excellent container-growing media, often in amounts exceeding 50% and sometimes up to 100% by volume in No. 2 containers (6 L), even despite initially elevated and potentially toxic contents of soluble salts [expressed in terms of electrical conductivity measured up to 8.9 dS·m-1 in 1 substrate: 2 water (by volume) extracts] in many of the substrates. A key to these successful results is that salts leach quickly from the containers to benign levels (∼1.0 dS·m-1) with normal irrigation practices. High initial pH in most waste-derived substrates (up to 8.9) has had little or no discernible effect on growth of a wide assortment of deciduous nursery species. By-products such as paper mill sludge and municipal waste compost with soluble salts contents typically ranging from 0.8 to 2.0 dS·m-1, also provide acceptable rooting media provided salts are leached before use to values ≤0.2 dS·m-1. The porosity and aeration characteristics of waste-derived substrates tend to be comparable to, or better than, those of bark.

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P. Lecomte, M. Laganière, and Y. Desjardins

Increasing costs associated with the disposal of industrial and urban wastes necessitate the development of alternatives which are economical and environmentally safe. With >3000 ha in Quebec, sod production represents an interesting alternative for the use of new amendments, such as composted de-inked paper sludges and municipal waste compost. The objective of this trial was to evaluate the potential benefits of these amendments (nutrient retention in the root zone and chemical and physical soil benefits) and question potential environmental hazards. Chemical dynamics of N, P, K, micronutrients and heavy metals were examined over four soil layers (0 to 15, 15 to 30, 30 to 60, an >60 cm) on sandy and clay soil. Preliminary results for 1993 and 1994 indicate that nutrient concentrations in water extract are high following the establishment of sites. When sod is absent, high concentrations of lead (500 mg·kg–1 in urban compost) show only a slight trend to accumulate. Nevertheless, this new approach toward using industrial and urban composts seems to be adequate and economically attractive.

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Matt Welch and D.L. Creech

The poultry industry is a $1 billion industry in Texas, with most production centered in eastern Texas. The nursery industry is a $600 million industry, with 25% of the producers located in eastern Texas. With hundreds of millions of birds produced each year, and each bird producing ≈2 lb of manure, waste disposal is a growing problem. Composted poultry litter was mixed with composted pine bark to create five media with varying percentages of poultry litter as a component: 0%, 5%, 10%, 20%, and 40%. A randomized complete-block design was used with poultry litter rates as main plots and plant species tested as subplots. Five species included: tomato, marigold, Cortaderia selloana, Asian jasmine, and Salvia leucantha. Prior to planting, all 1-gal containers were leached with 1000 ml of water, the leachate collected, and tested for conductivity. Plant growth measurements to be presented include plant height and dry weight. The results of media and leaf tissue nutrient analysis will be presented.

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Jean-Yves Daigle

The general population is constantly reminded of the need to adopt a more environmental-friendly approach to waste disposal on all scales. Commercial fishing generates large proportions of waste, ranging from 40% to more than 80% of the catch! The objective of conserving the nutrients and other organic values contained in this type of waste is unlikely to be fully met by bulking for aerobic composting with materials of low buffering capacity, such as straw or wood wastes. However, the capacity of peat for deodorizing of decomposing organic wastes as well as its high buffering capacity has been well demonstrated. This presentation shows how the incorporation of sphagnum peatmoss in a composting process contributes significantly to the production of a valuable organic soil amendment.