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Kevin Laskowski and Emily Merewitz

(circular plugs 10.16 cm in diameter) were taken from the experimental field following acclimation to about −1 to 4 °C on 11 Nov. 2016 and 25 Nov. 2017. A total of 160 turfgrass plugs (five chemical treatments × four sampling time points × four plot

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Chuck Ingels and John Roncoroni

amounts, it is slow to emerge in field conditions, and establishment is sporadic due to weed competition ( Amme, 2008 ). Therefore, it is typically established by transplanting plugs or plants grown in small pots 6–12 inches apart ( Greenlee, 2000 ), and

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Sanalkumar Krishnan, Yingmei Ma, and Emily Merewitz

hormonal responses for the promotion of turfgrass science research and management. Materials and Methods Plant material and growth conditions. Sod plugs of creeping bentgrass were harvested from the Hancock Turfgrass Research Center in East Lansing, MI

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Lisa Tang, Sukhdeep Singh, and Tripti Vashisth

of the mechanism that underlies how HLB increases mature fruit abscission can be a key for the development of strategies to mitigate HLB-associated preharvest drop and thereby improve the yields. The increased occurrence of sieve pore plugging and

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Paige L. Herring, Abbey C. Noah, and Helen T. Kraus

PEAT in unavailable water, but unavailable water values were greater for OM than PEAT. Bulk density was greatest for OM and SLC. Although root growth was not measured in this study, more prolific root growth throughout the plug was observed with SLC

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Gerard Krewer, Esendugue Greg Fonsah, Mark Rieger, Richard Wallace, David Linvill, and Ben Mullinix

-free period is normally mid-March to mid-November. Most plants used in the experiment were obtained from a commercial tissue culture nursery (Agri-starts, Apoka, FL) as three- to four-leaf plugs. Plants were grown in a warm greenhouse (minimum temperature of

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A. James Downer, D.W. Cudney, M. Henry, V. Gibeault, and S. Cockerham

Kikuyugrass (Pennisetum clandestinum Hochst.) an aggressive weed of cool season turfgrass in coastal California, Spreads rapidly by growth of robust stolons and seedlings. Kikuyugrass competition was studied by placing plugs of six turfgrasses in a kikuyugrass sward. Plug diameters increased when triclopyr (.56kg ai/ha) or quinclorac (.74kg ai/hg) were repeatedly applied (4 times) in combination with MSMA (2.2kg ai/ha). These herbicide combinations also eradicated kikuyugrass in lawns of cool season turfgrass. Kikuyugrass density was reduced from 75% of the turfgrass sward to 0%. Resurgence of kikuyugrass has not exceeded 5% 4 months posttreatment.

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Ricky D. Kemery and Michael N. Dana

Fir seedling transplant containers were used as an alternative to conventional plug containers (72 per tray) in a system to grow seedlings of native prairie perennials and install them on a highway site in central Indiana. Plants grown in deep-tube fir-seedling containers exhibited greater fresh and dry weights than conventional plug transplants with no root circling. Results from survival data indicate that plants grown in fir seedling containers offer better chances of success on highway sites with low soil fertility and poor soil structure. A chronology of installation methods, tools, and mechanization possibilities is presented.

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Shawna Loper, Amy L. Shober, Christine Wiese, Geoffrey C. Denny, Craig D. Stanley, and Edward F. Gilman

tillage treatment, soil (or soil + compost) was turned to a depth of 10 to 15 cm using a counterrotating tines tiller (Sears Brands, LLC, Hoffman Estates, IL). In plots receiving the aeration treatment, soil aeration plugs were mechanically removed using a

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Hardeep Singh, Megha R. Poudel, Bruce Dunn, Charles Fontanier, and Gopal Kakani

, plug trays of geranium and fountain grass were obtained from Park Seed (Greenwood, SC). These trays were kept on a mist bench until pots and media were ready for transplanting. The plants were manually misted twice a day. Plugs were transplanted into