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Thomas E. Marler, April Cascasan, and John H. Lawrence

capable horticultural technicians to care for the most problematic species. Therefore, empirical research results are a prerequisite to managing this aspect of a conservation nursery. Several tree species that are native to the Mariana Islands are

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Jerry A. Payne

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Belinda Love, Wayne S Johnson, and George C.J. Fernandez

Germination of purple sage [Salvia dorrii (Kellogg) Abrams] seed was evaluated under 21 temperature combinations (day temperatures from 5 to 30C and night temperatures from 5 to 30C) in two experiments: 1) cool-moist stratification; and 2) sandpaper scarification, leaching with water, or gibberellic acid (GA3). The quadratic responses of weighted germination percentage (WGP), a combined index of germination percentage and speed of germination, were significant (P ≤ 0.05) for all treatments. The interaction of day and night temperatures was significant (P ≤ 0.05) only for the 2-week stratification treatments and for the Expt. 2 control. Stratification increased WGP over the control. Optimal WGP for all stratification treatments ranged from 46% to 51%. Optimal WGP was the same for both GA3 treatments. Optimal WGP for 0.29 mmol GA3 occurred at 16C night temperature and 22C day temperature, and for the 1.44 mmol GA3 treatment at 18C night and at 30C day temperature.

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Ing-Jiun Tom Wu, G.L. Wheeler, and F.H. Huang

Scarification treatments (a control, a 10-minute vacuum, or a 1.5-minute ultrasound), different media (modified Norstog and Van Waes) and growth regulators [benzyladenine (BA) at 0, 1, 1.5, or 2 mg·L-1 and 6-(r,r-dimethylallylamino)-purine riboside (2iPR) at 0, 1, 1.5 or 2 mg·L-1] were used in combination to increase seed germination of Cypripedium calceolus var. parviflorum. Seeds treated with ultrasound had higher germination (58.0%) than those treated with vacuum (27.4%) or controls (19.2%). Germination rates increased with 2iPR level and reached a maximum between 1.5 and 2 mg·L-1. Seeds on Van Waes medium, which were not transferred to fresh medium after germination, had a severe browning problem causing many protocorms to die. Those on Norstog medium continued to grow into seedlings with less browning. Germination rates of Calopogon tuberosus × Calopogon `Adventure' and Liparis liliifolia were determined on the different media and growth regulator treatments. Multiple shoots of Calopogon developed from single seeds on media containing growth regulators. Flower buds formed in vitro on Calopogon in media containing 1 mg·L-1 or higher BA 5 months after germination. L. Iiliifolia seeds in Norstog medium had a higher proportion of germination than those in Van Waes medium.

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Carlma B. Bratcher, John M. Dole, and Janet C. Cole

The effect of cold on germination rate, percentage and range of five cut flowers was investigated: Baptisia australis (Wild Blue Indigo), Echinacea purpurea (Purple Coneflower), Helianthus maximilianii (Maximillian Sunflower), Solidago petiolaris (Spike Goldenrod), and Vernonia missurica (lronweed). Viability was determined for the species using TTC staining and germination based on percent viable seed. Seeds were given 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10 weeks of cold at 5°C. Increasing weeks of cold decreased days to germination in all five species, with Baptisia demonstrating the greatest effect. The germination percent increased as weeks of cold increased in all five species, but was most significant in Helianthus and Vernonia. Days from first to last germinating seed was significantly decreased in all five species as weeks of cold increased. Four weeks of cold was optimum for Echinacea and Vernonia, while optimum weeks of cold for Helianthus and Solidago was six weeks and Baptisia ten weeks.

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Jyotsna Sharma* and William R. Graves

Rhamnus alnifolia and Rhamnus lanceolata are shrubs of modest size with lustrous foliage. We evaluated seed germination of both species and propagated R. alnifolia by using softwood cuttings collected in early June. For R. alnifolia, cold stratification for up to 90 d resulted in 48% germination and a germination value of 1.9, whereas only 7% germination occurred among seeds stratified for 120 d. Seeds of R. alnifolia did not germinate if they were untreated or if scarified and stratified. Rhamnus lanceolata required 120 d of stratification to germinate, but percentages were low (≤ 5). Survival of germinants of both species was 90 to 100% regardless of prior seed treatment. Seedlings grew uniformly and had a mean leaf count of 11 and a mean height of 20 cm after 102 d. Application of 3000 and 8000 mg/L indole-3-butyric acid (IBA) in talc led to 85% rooting of R. alnifolia, whereas rooting was ≤ 15% after use of solutions with those IBA concentrations. While 75% of untreated cuttings rooted, fewer roots formed without IBA. More roots developed in 100% vermiculite than in 1 vermiculite: 1 perlite (by volume), which also diminished the number and apparent health of leaves on cuttings during the rooting period. We conclude that talc-based IBA and vermiculite should be used to root softwood cuttings of R. alnifolia, and that both species can be propagated from stratified seeds. Rhamnus lanceolata is more recalcitrant than is R. alnifolia and merits further study to optimize germination success.

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Jerry A. Payne, Gregory Miller, George P. Johnson, and Samuel D. Senter

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Carlma B. Bratcher, John M. Dole, and Janet C. Cole

The germination responses of wild blue indigo [Baptisia australis (L.) R. Br.], purple coneflower [Echinacea purpurea (L.) Moench.], Maximilian sunflower (Helianthus maximiliani Schrad.), spike goldenrod (Solidago petiolaris Ait.), and Missouri ironweed (Vernonia missurica Raf.) seeds after 0, 2, 4, 6, 8, or 10 weeks of stratification at 5C were investigated. Seed viability was determined using triphenyl tetrazolium chloride staining and germination based on the percentage of viable seeds. Germination percentage (GP) increased in all five species as weeks of stratification increased. Days to first germination and germination range (days from first to last germinating seed) decreased with increasing weeks of stratification, but the effect beyond 4 to 6 weeks was minimal. The number of weeks of stratification for maximum GP was 4 for purple coneflower, 6 for Maximilian sunflower, 8 for Missouri ironweed, and 10 for wild blue indigo and spike goldenrod.