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J.M.S. Scholberg and S.J. Locascio

Although the effects of salinity on yield of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) grown under arid and semiarid conditions are well known, little information is available on the effects of salinity on crops grown in more humid conditions. In Florida, availability of high-quality water for irrigation may be reduced because of increased domestic consumption and sea water intrusion. Two greenhouse studies were conducted to determine the influence of irrigation system and water quantity and quality on the growth of tomato and snap bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.). Bean plant heights and weights were greater with drip irrigation than with subirrigation. Bean seed germination percentage, plant height, and shoot weight decreased linearly with an increase in electrical conductivity of irrigation water (ECi) from 1 to 4 dS·m-1. Tomato leaf water potential and plant height decreased linearly with increasing salinity. Tomato stem and leaf weights were greatest at the intermediate salinity (2 dS·m-1) during initial growth, and stem weights decreased linearly with increased salinity during flowering. With drip irrigation, concentration of N for both crops decreased and concentration of P increased with an increase in water application from 0.75 to 1.5 times the estimated evapotranspiration rate (ETa). Tomato and bean tissue Na concentrations increased linearly with increased salinity. Total fruit yield and average fruit weight decreased linearly in tomato, and marketable fruit yield decreased quadratically with increased salinity.

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N.S. Lang, L. Mills, R.L. Wample, J. Silbernagel, E.M. Perry, and R. Smithyman

Research suggests that blackleaf (a leaf disorder in grape, Vitis labrusca L.) is induced by high levels of ultra violet (UV) radiation and overall light intensity, resulting in color changes (purple-brown-black) for sun-exposed leaves of the outer canopy, and a corresponding >50% reduction in photosynthesis. Metabolic indicators (photosynthesis and leaf water potential), percent blackleaf expression, and full spectrum leaf reflectance were mapped within vineyards using global positioning system (GPS) and digital remotely-sensed images. Each image and data record was stored as an attribute associated with a specific vine location within a geographical information system (GIS). Spatial maps were created from the GIS coverages to graphically present the progression of blackleaf across vineyards throughout the season. Analysis included summary statistics such as minimum, maximum, and variation of green reflectance, within a vineyard by image capture date. Additionally, geostatistics were used to model the degree of similarity between blackleaf values as a function of their spatial location. Remote-image analysis indicated a decrease in percent greenness of about 45% between July and August, which was related to a decrease in photosynthesis and an increase in blackleaf symptom expression within the canopy. Examination of full spectral leaf reflectance indicated differences at specific wavelengths for grape leaves exposed to UV or water-deficit stress. This work suggests that remote-image and leaf spectral reflectance analysis may be a strong tool for monitoring changes in metabolism associated with plant stress.

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Albert Liptay, Peter Sikkema, and William Fonteno

The theme of this review is modulation of extension growth in transplant production through restraint of watering of the seedlings. The purpose of the modulation is to produce transplants of 1) appropriate height for ease of field setting and 2) adequate stress tolerance to withstand outdoor environmental conditions. Physiological responses of the plant are discussed in relation to the degree of water deficit stress and are related to the degree of hardening or stress tolerance development in the transplants. Optimal stress tolerance or techniques for measuring same have not been fully defined in the literature. However, stress tolerance in seedlings is necessary to withstand environmental forces such as wind and sand-blasting after the seedlings are transplanted in the field. It is also imperative that the seedlings undertake a rapid and sustained rate of growth after outdoor transplanting. Water deficit stress applied to plants elicits many different physiological responses. For example, as leaf water potential begins to decrease, leaf enlargement is inhibited before photosynthesis or respiration is affected, with the result of a higher rate of dry matter accumulation per unit leaf area. The cause of the reduced leaf area may be a result of reduced K uptake by the roots with a concomitant reduction in cell expansion. Severe water deficits however, result in overstressed seedlings with stunted growth and poor establishment when transplanted into the field. In transplant production systems, appropriate levels of water deficit stress can be used as a management tool to produce seedlings conducive to the transplanting process.

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Malcolm C. Drew, Pamela S. Hold, and Geno A. Picchioni

Cucumber (Cucumis sativus L. cv. Fidelio) grown in sand culture in the greenhouse was trickle-irrigated with nutrient solution containing 0, 10, or 50 mm NaCl. Gas exchange of Individual leaves was measured by a portable infrared gas analyzer et saturating photosynthetic photon flux. Salt at 10 mm had no detectable effect on plant performance, but exposure to 50 mm NaCl caused net CO2 fixation to decline by 33% and 48% in the eighth and ninth oldest leaves, respectively. Stomatal conductance and transpiration rate were also reduced (≈ 50%) In these leaves. These differences, as well as lower leaf water potentials, were associated with a 60% reduction in fruit fresh weight. The relationship between net CO2 fixation and intercellular (substomatal) CO2 concentrations was determined for individual, attached leaves of plants with roots exposed to various concentrations of NaCl in hydroponics. With 50 and 100 mm NaCl, a nonstomatal contribution to the inhibition of photosynthesis at the chloroplast level was Indicated by strong inhibition of CO, fixation at a saturating CO2 concentration. Salt-induced inhibition of CO2 fixation was associated with accumulation of Na+ and Cl-, and lower K+ in the individual leaves examined.

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John M. Nelson, David A. Palzkill, and Paul G. Bartels

Flower bud injury resulting from freezing temperatures has been a major problem in jojoba [Simmondsia chinensis (Link) C. Schneid.] production. A 3-year field study, which began with 4-year-old plants, evaluated the effect of three irrigation treatments on growth, flower bud survival, seed yield, seed weight, and seed wax concentration of six clones. After 3 years, irrigation cut-off dates of late May (dry treatment) and early September (medium treatment) resulted in reduced plant height and width compared to irrigating through November (wet treatment). Flower bud survival and seed yields were very low in the first year for all treatments. In the second and third years, bud survival for most clones, even at -8C, was greatly improved by withholding water in the fall. In December of the second and third years, plants in the medium and dry plots had lower leaf water potential than those in the wet plot. In the second year, plants in the medium and dry plots had seed yields that were 3.5 times higher and wax yields that were were 2.3 times higher than plants in the wet plot. In the third year, the medium treatment had the highest seed and wax yields. Average seed weight and seed wax concentration were generally highest for plants in the wet plot where seed yields were low. Withholding irrigation from jojoba in the fall appears to improve flower bud survival and seed and wax yields following cold winters.

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Agnes A. Flores-Nimedez, Paul H. Li, and Charles C. Shin

GLK-8903, an experimental product whose main ingredient is produced by hydrogenation of a primary alcohol extracted from plants, showed significant potential in protecting bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) plants from chilling injury. The GLK-8903 protection mechanism was assessed by examining several physiological and biochemical responses. The decline in leaf water potential and the increase in osmotic potential caused by chilling exposure to 4C (day/night) were minimized by the application of GLK-8903. Chilling causes an increase in electrolyte leakage, an indication of chilling injury of the plasma membrane. Increased electrolyte leakage was reduced significantly in the GLK-8903-treated plants during chilling. This minimized leakage may be due to less damage of the plasma membrane. Plasmolysis and deplasmolysis studies of the epidermal cells suggest that GLK-8903 is able to reduce the plasma membrane perturbation in the chilling environment, as evident by: 1) the lower permeability coefficient to urea at 4C, and 2) the swelling of protoplasts in the cells of untreated tissues after chilling exposure with no swelling of the protoplast being observed in the GLK-8903-treated cells. Malondialdehyde (MDA), a product of lipid peroxidation, increased more in untreated controls than in treated plants exposed to 4C. Plasma membrane ATPase activity decreased less in GLK-8903-treated plants than in untreated controls after 3 days at 4C. The mechanism of GLK-8903-alleviated chilling injury is discussed.

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Horst W. Caspari, M. Hossein Behboudian, and David J. Chalmers

Five-year old `Hosui' Asian pear (Pyrus serotina Rehder) trees growing in drainage lysimeters and trained onto a Tatura trellis were subjected to three different irrigation regimes. Weekly water use (WU) was calculated using the mass-balance approach. Soil-water content of control lysimeters was kept at pot capacity, while deficit irrigation was applied before [regulated deficit irrigation (RDI)] and during the period of rapid fruit growth [late deficit irrigation (LDI)]. Soil-water content was maintained at ≈50% and 75% of pot capacity for RDI and LDI, respectively. Deficit irrigation reduced mean WU during RDI and LDI by 20%. The reduced WU was caused by lower stomatal conductance (gs) on deficit-irrigated trees. RDI trees had more-negative diurnal leaf water potentials (ψl). The ψl, gs, and WU remained lower for 2 weeks after RDI was discontinued. RDI reduced shoot extension and summer pruning weights, whereas winter pruning weights were not different between treatments. Except for the final week of RDI, fruit growth was not reduced, and fruit from RDI grew faster than the control during the first week after RDI. In contrast, fruit volume measurements showed that fruit growth was clearly inhibited by LDI. Final fruit size and yield, however, were not different between treatments. Return bloom was reduced by RDI but was not affected by LDI.

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Hiroshi Yakushiji, Kunihisa Morinaga, and Hiroshi Nonami

Mechanisms of sugar accumulation in response to drought stress in Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) fruit were investigated. Predawn leaf water potentials averaged -0.35MPa for well-watered, -0.60 MPa for moderately drought-stressed, and -1.00 MPa for severely drought-stressed glasshouse-grown 3-year-old trees. Fruit peel turgor and fruit growth of the moderately drought-stressed trees recovered to a similar value to that of the well-watered trees. Photosynthetic rates and stomatal conductance of both moderately and severely drought-stressed trees were significantly lower than those of the well-watered plants. However, the total sugar content per fruit of moderately drought-stressed trees was the highest among the drought treatments. A 13C-labeling experiment showed that 13C distribution in fruit grown under the moderately drought-stressed condition was the highest. These findings indicate that sugar accumulation in fruit was caused by an increase in translocation of photosynthates into fruit, especially into the juice sacs, under drought stress.

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R. Thomas Fernandez, Ronald L. Perry, and James A. Flore

`Imperial Gala' apple trees (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) on M.9 EMLA, MM.111, and Mark rootstocks were subjected to two drought-stress and recovery periods in a rainshelter. Water relations, gas-exchange parameters per unit leaf area and per tree, chlorophyll fluorescence, and leaf abscisic acid content were determined during each stress and recovery period. Whole-plant calculated gas exchange best indicated plant response to drought stress, with consistent reductions in CO2 assimilation, transpiration, and leaf conductance. Variable and maximal chlorophyll fluorescence and fluorescence quenching were not as sensitive to stress. Other fluorescence parameters showed little difference. The most consistent decreases due to stress for gas exchange per square meter were in transpiration and leaf conductance, with few differences in CO2 assimilation and fewer for mesophyll conductance, internal CO2 concentration, and water-use efficiency. Leaf water potential was consistently lower during drought stress and returned to control values upon irrigation. Leaf abscisic acid content was higher for drought-stressed trees on M.9 EMLA than control trees during the stress periods but inconsistently different for the other rootstock treatments. Trees on M.9 EMLA were least affected by drought stress, MM.111 was intermediate, and Mark was the most sensitive; these results are consistent with the growth data.

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Stephanie E. Burnett, Svoboda V. Pennisi, Paul A. Thomas, and Marc W. van Iersel

Polyethylene glycol 8000 (PEG-8000) was applied to a soilless growing medium at the concentrations of 0, 15, 20, 30, 42, or 50 g·L-1 to impose controlled drought. Salvia (Salvia splendens F. Sellow. ex Roem & Shult.) seeds were planted in the growing medium to determine if controlled drought affects morphology and anatomy of salvia. Polyethylene glycol decreased emergence percentage and delayed emergence up to 5 days. Stem elongation of salvia treated with the five lowest concentrations was reduced up to 35% (21 days after seeding), and salvia were a maximum of 53% shorter and the canopy was 20% more narrow compared to nontreated seedlings 70 days after seeding. These morphological changes were attributed to PEG-8000 mediated reduction in leaf water potential (Ψw). The growing medium Ψw ranged from -0.29 to -0.85 MPa in PEG-8000 treated plants, and plant height was positively correlated with Ψw 21 days after seeding. Stem diameter of PEG-treated seedlings was reduced up to 0.4 mm mainly due to reductions in vascular cross-sectional area. Xylem cross-sectional area decreased more than stem and phloem cross-sectional area. Polyethylene glycol 8000 reduced vessel element number, but not diameter.