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Sanalkumar Krishnan and Emily B. Merewitz

Salt stress is increasingly becoming a major problem in turfgrass management, as golf courses and other turf areas are located on salt-laden lands, coastal areas, and areas where fresh water sources are limited. In areas where fresh water is limited

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Yuhung Lin and Yaling Qian

turfgrass on 18-hole golf courses had been irrigated annually with 285 million cubic meters of water ( Golf Course Superintendents Association of America, 2009 ). Recycled water irrigation can significantly reduce fresh water and fertilizer requirements of

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Sudeep S. Sidhu, Qingguo Huang, Robert N. Carrow, and Paul L. Raymer

Formation of thatch and mat layers is one of the major problems in management of modern turfgrass golf greens. Thatch is a layer of organic matter that accumulates between the soil and green turfgrass and contains both living and dead plant tissues

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Dale J. Bremer, Steven J. Keeley, Abigail Jager, Jack D. Fry, and Cathie Lavis

With urbanization, significant tracts of natural ecosystem and agricultural land are being replaced with turfgrass [ Alig et al., 2004 ; U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), 1999 ]. In the United States, turfgrasses are estimated to cover 16 to 20

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L. Wu, L Hong, and Ali M. Harivandi

The effects of high concentrations of Cl-, K+, Mg2+, and Ca2+ of the simulated waste water on the growth of turfgrass species and partitioning of these mineral element concentrations in the turfgrass-soil system have been studied. This is a two year project and the waste treatment was started in the first week of October 1993. The waste water contains 17.89 mM of K+, 97.5 mM of Ca2+, 78.1 mM of Mg2+, and 389.17 mM of Cl-. Kentucky bluegrass, perennial ryegrass, tall fescue, bermudagrass, and zoysiagrass have been irrigated with 1/5, 1/10, and 1/20 times concentration of the waste water and mowed weekly at 5 cm high. The preliminary results showed that there was no detectable growth inhibition of turfgrass by the three waste water concentrations. Waste water irrigation significantly increased the uptake of the mineral elements by the turfgrass. Significant reduction of the mineral element concentrations in the leach by the turfgrass system only found under the conditions of low concentration waste irrigation. However, the seasonal growth pattern of the turfgrass species may have significant influence on the partitioning of the element concentrations in the turfgrass-soil system and their concentrations in the leach. This prediction will be detected by the future studies.

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Sanalkumar Krishnan, Kevin Laskowski, Vijaya Shukla, and Emily B. Merewitz

Perennial ryegrass is a widely used C3 turfgrass and forage species in both cool- and warm-season areas ( Turgeon, 2005 ). Drought is one of the major abiotic stress factors affecting perennial ryegrass growth and functionality. Drought stress

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J. Pablo Morales-Payan and William M. Stall

Experiments were conducted to determine the effects of selected biostimulants on St. Augustine turfgrass exposed to short-term periods of freezing temperatures, which are common in north-central Florida during March and April. Aqueous solutions of a triterpenic acid-rich extract from Siberian fir (Abiessibirica) [(TTA), 0 and 300 mg·L-1

a.i.], a seaweed (Ascophyllum nodosum) extract [(CSE), 30 mg·L-1

a.i.], acetylthioproline [(AP), 250 mg·L-1 a.i.], and amino levulinic acid [(5-ALA), 15 mg·L-1 a.i.] were sprayed on residential St. Augustine turfgrass about 50 hours prior to the forecasted freezing event. After freezing, the aesthetic quality of AP-treated St. Augustine turfgrass was the same as in untreated turfgrass plots, but it was drastically reduced in turfgrass treated with 5-ALA. In contrast, St. Augustine tufgrass aesthetic quality was higher in CSE- and TTA-treated plots than in untreated plots. These results indicate that CSE and TTA may help alleviate the negative effects of short-term exposure to freezing temperatures in St. Augustine turfgrass.

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Douglas T. Linde and Lawrence D. Hepner

Using composted biosolid waste as a soil amendment for turfgrass is becoming a common method for disposing of municipal waste. This study was conducted to evaluate turfgrass seed and sod establishment on subsoil amended with various rates of biosolid compost. To a soil that had its A-horizon removed, biosolid compost derived from sewage sludge was incorporated at rates of 0, 132, 270, and 402 yard3/acre. A fifth treatment included a single application of fertilizer at time of sowing. Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) was seeded immediately after treatment application. The treatments were repeated on an adjacent area using kentucky bluegrass sod. For 1.5 years, turfgrass percent cover, color, density, and weeds were evaluated. Overall, the compost performed well as a soil amendment for turfgrass. A 2- to 3-inch depth of compost appeared to be the best incorporation rate for the soil and compost used in this study. High salinity and excessive ammonium nitrogen (NH4-N) levels in the compost-amended soil at the time of establishment caused a 2- to 3-week delay in seed and sod establishment. After the 2 to 3 weeks, the compost-amended plots outperformed the one-time fertilized plots in turfgrass color and density. Turf managers may want to account for the delay in establishment when incorporating a 60-day-cured compost.

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Mohamad-Hossein Sheikh-Mohamadi, Nematollah Etemadi, Ali Nikbakht, Mostafa Farajpour, Mostafa Arab, and Mohammad Mahdi Majidi

becoming a main environmental factor limiting seed germination and seedling growth in arid and semiarid regions ( Sekmen et al., 2012 ). Different levels of salinity stress can affect turfgrass adversely. These may include a series of morphological

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S.K. Braman, R.R. Duncan, and M.C. Engelke

Turfgrass selections including 21 paspalums (Paspalum vaginatum Swartz) and 12 zoysiagrasses (Zoysia sp.) were compared with susceptible `KY31' tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and more resistant common bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon Pers.) and common centipedegrass [Eremochloa ophiuroides (Munro.) Hack] for potential resistance to fall armyworm [Spodoptera frugiperda (J.E. Smith)], an occasionally serious pest of managed turf. Turfgrass and pasture grasses annually suffer sporadic damage by this pest, often severe in the Gulf Coast states. Resistant grasses offer an alternative management tool for the fall armyworm, reducing the need for pesticide use. Laboratory evaluations assessed the degree of antibiosis and nonpreference present among more than 30 turfgrass genotypes to first and third instar fall armyworms, respectively. Zoysiagrasses exhibiting high levels of antibiosis included `Cavalier', `Emerald', DALZ8501, DALZ8508, `Royal', and `Palisades'. Paspalum selections demonstrating reduced larval or pupal weights or prolonged development times of fall armyworm included 561-79, Temple-2, PI-509021, and PI-509022.