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Adam Dale

Black currant (Ribes nigrum L.) plants of eight varieties were grown either through black plastic mulch or in bare soil and with the area between the rows cultivated or sodded with red fescue (Festuca rubra L.). Over 6 years, black plastic mulch increased yields by 26% over no mulch and cultivation between the rows increased yield by 32% compared to sod. The effect of both treatments was additive, cultivation and black plastic increased yield by 68% over grass and no black plastic. Growers are recommended to plant black currants through black plastic and avoid using sod between the rows.

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Kenton W. Peterson, Jack D. Fry, and Dale J. Bremer

tillering ( Ervin et al., 2002 ; Okeyo et al., 2011a ; Qian et al., 1998 ). As a result, turfgrass grown under shade often declines in quality. Zoysiagrass is a sod-forming warm-season perennial turfgrass indigenous to the Pacific Rim ( Anderson, 2000

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Xiao-Juan Wei, Jinlin Ma, Kun Wang, Xiao-Jing Liang, Jin-Xuan Lan, Yue-Juan Li, Kai-Xiang Li, and Haiying Liang

leaves from the past year’s growth were harvested from each plant and used for analyses of activities of stress-related enzymes [APX, CAT, polyphenol oxidase (PPO), SOD, and POD], and levels of MAD, chlorophylls, water-soluble sugar, and nutrients (N, P

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Josiah W. Worthington

Budded, bare root, `Wichita' pecan trees were planted and grown in inexpensive, 2m X.75m, non-weighing lysimeters for three growing seasons. Metered water was applied automatically through microirrigation systems as called for by switching tensiometers. Soil moisture tension was not allowed to exceed 25 Kpa. All tree/sod combinations received 336 kg N per hectare from 1-1-1 ratio commercial fertilizer.

Water use, tree growth, and nutrient status of trees grown under the following orchard floor management practices were measured: 1)Unmowed coastal bermudagrass. 2)Mechanically mowed bermudagrass, 3)Chemically mowed bermudagrass, and 4)Bare soil.

Water use by trees with chemical or mechanically mowed sod were intermediate in water use between unmowed and fallow soil treatments. In spite of the fact that water was never limiting for any treatment, fallow trees grew significantly larger than trees in any of the sodded treatments. A significantly lower level of foliar potassium was noted in trees growing in sod systems.

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D.M. Glenn, J. Kotcon, and W.V. Welker

Three soil management treatments (cultivation, herbicide, and killed sod) were established in the drive middle of a 10-year-old apple orchard removed the year prior to planting peaches. The cultivation and herbicide treatments used preplant tillage, leaving a bare soil surface, whereas the killed-sod system was untilled. Peach trees (Prunus persica L. Batsch) were planted, and growth, yield, and soil bulk density were measured after 3 years. There were no differences in tree growth or yield for the three treatments These results were contrary to published reports that the killed-sod system increased early tree growth. The lack of growth response in the killed-sod system was attributed to the high soil bulk density remaining from the previous orchard. We concluded that truck and tractor traffic in the drive middle causes severe soil compaction, which may limit root development. The soil compaction can only be moderated by tillage.

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Lijian Liang, Yanming Deng, Xiaobo Sun, Xinping Jia, and Jiale Su

nucleic acid damage ( Scandalios, 1993 ; Sharma et al., 2012 ). To defend against these damaging effects, plants have evolved two kinds of antioxidative systems to scavenge ROS. One is the antioxidant enzymes, including SOD (EC 1.15.1.1), CAT (EC 1

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Karen R. Harris-Shultz, Susana Milla-Lewis, Aaron J. Patton, Kevin Kenworthy, Ambika Chandra, F. Clint Waltz, George L. Hodnett, and David M. Stelly

different ( Harris-Shultz et al., 2012 ). Additionally, some cultivars of zoysiagrass are known to easily self- and cross-pollinate ( Harris-Shultz et al., 2012 ; Kimball et al., 2012a ). Because zoysiagrass is not apomictic, it is possible that sod fields

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Nadeem A. Abbasi, Mosbah M. Kushad, and Anton G. Endress

Superoxide dismutase (SOD: EC 1.1.15.1.1) and peroxidase (POD: EC 1.11.1.7) activities were evaluated during maturity, ripening, and senescence of `Red Spur Delicious' (Malus domestica Borkh.) apple fruits. SOD and POD activities did not exhibit uniform changes during fruit maturity; however, during fruit ripening, activities of both enzymes increased significantly. During fruit senescence, SOD activity continued to increase, while POD activity declined by 24% to 50%. Fruit maturity at harvest significantly affected SOD and POD activities during the progression of ripening and senescence. SOD activity was significantly higher during ripening and senescence of fruits that were harvested at full and over-mature stages than in fruits harvested at early mature stage. In contrast, POD activity was lower in fruits that were harvested at full and over-mature stages than in fruits harvested at early mature stage. Increase in SOD and POD activities during fruit ripening suggest that these enzymes are actively involved in scavenging free-radicals generated during this developmental stage. However, the decline in POD activity during fruit senescence suggest a possible disruption of the breakdown of H2O2 free-radicals. This disruption may have contributed to tissue senescence and the induction of a physiological disorder called senescence scald.

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Jacob S. Bravo, Thomas Okada Green, James R. Crum, John N. Rogers III, Sasha Kravchenko, and Charles A. Silcox

bluegrass seed can be found in the top 2 inches of the soil profile ( Branham et al., 2004 ). Sod removal of this layer as the first step during a renovation can be labor intensive, and if dazomet is effective without sod removal, then labor costs could be

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Mohamad-Hossein Sheikh-Mohamadi, Nematollah Etemadi, Ali Nikbakht, Mostafa Farajpour, Mostafa Arab, and Mohammad Mahdi Majidi

occurrence of germination ( Yan, 2015 ). Plants are often characterized by developing enzymatic and nonenzymatic defense systems for ROS scavenging to avoid these oxidative damages ( Etemadi et al., 2015 ). Enzymatic antioxidants include SOD, CAT, POD, and