In 1946 Kabachnik and Rossiiskaya (96) reported the chemical synthesis of “2-chloroethanephosphonic” acid and in 1963 Maynard and Swan (125) described the formation of ethylene from this compound. When (2-chloroethyl)phosphonic acid (ethephon; also variously cited as 2-chloroethanephosphonic acid, Amchem 66-329, CEPA and Ethrel® disintegrates, it releases ethylene and also chloride and phosphate ions (43, 67, 125, 196, 202) Ethephon is essentially stable in aqueous solutions below pH 4. When the presence of hydroxyl ions is increased and the pH rises above 4, disintegration of the chemical takes place. The pH of the cytoplasm of plant cells is generally greater than 4, so the plant growth activity of ethephon has been attributed primarily to its ability to release ethylene to plant tissues (14, 43, 132, 195, 196). Ethrel formulations provide a convenient way to apply ethylene without the need of gas-confining chambers.