A lime solution is an efficient starch gelatinization agent during the traditional process of nixtamalization of corn for tortilla production. Although the saturated Ca(OH)2 solution is usually heated to speed the process, similar physical-chemical changes occur to corn steeped at room temperature. In addition, the steeped grains are capable of rapid germination. In this study we explored whether, in barley grains subjected to the same steeping conditions, there would be an acceleration of biochemical changes for the production of malt. Barley grains cv. Esmeralda six-row were steeped in saturated solutions of lime from 0% to 2% (w/w) at 18 to 23 °C for up to 72 hours. After treatment, the grains were washed with water and placed in a germination cabinet at 20 ± 2 °C and 90% RH for up to 96 hours to germinate. Activity of α-amylase (U/mg protein), sprout length (cm), seed viability (tetrazolium test), and respiration rates were determined. Scanning electron micrographs were prepared. There was a very rapid uptake of lime solution by the barley grains during the first 30 hours of treatment. The barley grains were 98% viable after all periods of steeping. Grains steeped 24 hours and germinated 70 hours had the highest activity of α-amylase, longest sprout length and highest percentage of germination. Under SEM, chemical gelatinization of starch grains was observed in barley sections after different steeping treatments, and starch breakdown was observed in grains during germination. No fungal growth was observed during germination after the steeping treatments. These results demonstrate that steeping in lime solutions could shorten the period required for barley germination and similar conditions may be useful for germination of other cereal and vegetable seeds.
Augusto Trejo-Gonzalez and Marita Cantwell
Frank A. Blazich, Paul H. Henry, and Farrell C. Wise
Seeds of `Dawn Carpet' and `Little Bright Eye' annual vinca [Catharanthus roseus (L.) G. Don] were subjected to 32 treatments, arranged as a four × four × two factorial. For each cultivar, seeds were exposed to one of four temperatures (15, 20, 25, or 30C) during the 8-hour (day) and 16-hour (night) portions of the cycle. Within each temperature regime, half the seeds of each cultivar were irradiated for 1 hour daily, and the other half remained in constant darkness. Final germination percentages were suppressed at 15C day or night temperatures; at temperatures ≥20C, there were no significant differences between treatments. Heat input (daily degree hours) was a controlling factor in germination; different temperature cycles with equivalent numbers of daily degree hours had similar effects on germination response. There was a strong interaction between temperature and irradiation regime for both cultivars. Irradiating seeds for 1 hour/day reduced final germination percentages under cool (15C) conditions; response was not adversely affected when seeds at 15C were germinated in darkness. In a second experiment, seeds at 25C were exposed to daily photoperiods of 0, 1, 2, 4, 8, 12, or 24 hours. Germination percentages obtained in darkness and at photoperiods ≤12 hours were equivalent. Twenty-four-hour photoperiods suppressed germination compared to all other irradiation treatments.
Tim D. Davis, Daksha Sankhla, N. Sankhla, A. Upadhyaya, J.M. Parsons, and S.W. George
Seeds of Aquilegia chrysantha Gray were germinated under a variety of temperature regimes. Germination was nearly 90% under a day/night cycle of 25/20C, but was reduced to ≤ 40% under constant 25C or a 25/10C day/night cycle. With days between 25 and 29C (night = 20C), germination percentage dropped gradually to ≈ 60% with increasing temperature. With days >29C, germination declined dramatically such that no germination occurred at 31C. Neither kinetin (4.6 to 46 μm) nor ethephon (6.9 to 207 μm) was able to reverse the inhibitory effects of 33C days. Our results indicate that germination of A. chrysantha seed is sensitive to temperature and that germination ≈ 75% can be obtained under a 25 to 27C day/20C night regime. Chemical names used: 2-chloroethylphosphonic acid (ethephon); 6-furfurylaminopurine (kinetin).
Samuel Contreras, David Tay, and Mark Bennett
Lettuce seeds (Lactuca sativavar. acephalacv. Tango) were used with the objective of determining the effect of temperature, light, and their interactions in promoting germination. Under standard op-timal conditions (20 °C, light), the seed presented 100% germination (radicle emergence 5 d after sowing). Different treatments evaluated germination under dark conditions, with or without a red light break (LB, 28.8 mmol·m-2) 48 h after sowing, and with different combination of temperatures pre- (soaking temperature, ST) and post- (germination temperature, GT) the LB. Germination at constant 20 °C without LB was less than 5%, and with LB, it was around 30%. However, germination was close to 100% at GT of 20 °C when LB was applied after a ST of 10 °C, and around 50% under the same conditions, but without LB. When GT was 30 °C and LB was applied, germination was less than 3% with ST = 30 °C, less than 10% with ST = 20 °C, and around 100% when ST = 10 °C. With ST and GT of 10 °C and 30 °C, respectively, and no LB, germination was less than 5%. Germination at 10 °C constant, with and without LB, was around 90% and 0%, respectively. When ST was 40 °C and LB was applied, germination was around 40% at GT= 20 °C, but less that 3% with GT= 30 °C. In summary, a severe inhibition of germination was observed when seeds were germinated in dark, which was partially reversed by either a light treatment or soaking at 10 °C, and fully reversed when both treatments were applied together. Inhibition of lettuce germination at 30 °C was observed when this temperature was applied after a light treatment, but not when applied before. Possible implications of these results for the phytochrome mechanism of action are discussed.
Ikuo Miyajima, Adriana Kato, Juan Carlos Hagiwara, Diego Mata, Gabriela Facciuto, Silvina Soto, Alejandro Escandón, Marcela Mori, and Nobuo Kobayashi
In vitro germination of immature seeds of Jacaranda mimosifolia treated with gibberellic acid (GA3) was studied. Immature seeds were collected monthly after crossings and sown on Murashige and Skoog (1962) medium with 3.0% sucrose and 0.6% agar after soaked 24 hours with 0, 10, 100, and 500 mg·L–1 GA3 solutions. Though germination was observed in the immature seeds harvested 2 months after crossing (2 MAC), the rate was quite low. When immature seeds of 3 MAC treated with 100 or 500 mg·L–1 GA3 solution were cultured, >60% germination were obtained within 2 weeks after culturing. These results indicate that immature seeds of 3 MAC treated with adequate GA3 solutions, seedlings can be obtained precociously and the period from crossing to the seedling stage was shorter than for mature seeds.
Phil S. Allen and Susan E. Meyer
To determine optimum germination temperatures and effective dormancy-breaking procedures, field-grown (1983-85) seeds of `Bandera' Rocky Mountain penstemon (Penstemon strictus Benth), `Cedar' Palmer penstemon (Penstemon palmeri Gray), and firecracker penstemon (Penstemon eatonii Gray) were subjected to various cold stratification and incubation temperature treatments. Increased germination following an 8-week stratification occurred in seed lots containing dormant seeds, but a 2-week stratification generally failed to break dormancy. Older (1983) seeds of `Bandera' and `Cedar' penstemon germinated to full viability without stratification. All species showed a marked decrease in germination percentage above 20C; 15C consistently produced maximum germination after 4 weeks. At 15C, mean times to 90% of total germination were 11, 22, and 29 days for `Bandera', `Cedar', and firecracker penstemon, respectively. Transfer of seeds failing to germinate at warm temperatures (25 and 30C) to 15C and applying 720 μm gibberellic acid (GA3) solution was effective in breaking primary dormancy of firecracker penstemon and secondary dormancy of `Bandera' penstemon. Our findings suggest that incubation below 20C, combined with 8 weeks of stratification or the use of after-ripened seed, may improve seed propagation efforts for these species.
Candice A. Shoemaker and William H. Carlson
Suhas R. Ghate and Sharad C. Phatak
Seeds of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) and pepper (Capsicum annuum L.) were either germinated before planting, primed (immersed in an aerated solution of potassium phosphate and ammonium phosphate for 72 hours (tomato) or 120 hours (pepper) and dried), or left untreated (raw) and then planted with gel in loamy sand and sandy soils. There was little difference in response from the tomato seed treatments. In pepper, germinated seeds emerged much earlier and established heavier plants. Differences in emergence due to seed treatments generally were greater in loamy sand than in sandy soil.
Carlos Crisosto and Ellen G. Sutter
The endocarp of ‘Manzanillo’ olive (Olea europaea L.) seeds was subjected to several treatments in order to determine its effect on germination of the olive seed. The endocarp inhibited germination in stratified as well as unstratified olive seeds. Removing the endocarp resulted in high percentages of germination, but only when it was completely removed or when the radicle end was removed. The endocarp did not inhibit germination by preventing imbibition, since water uptake occurred in the seed through the untreated endocarp and through the clipped cotyledon end. The endocarp also did not contain water soluble inhibitors that prevent germination. Rather, the endocarp seemed to inhibit germination through mechanical resistance. High percentages of germination can occur only when the structure of the endocarp is altered, reducing its resistance to embryo expansion.
Donna J. Clevenger, James E. Barrett, Harry J. Klee, and David G. Clark
Pollen viability, in-vivo pollen tube growth, fruit ripening, seed germination, seed weight, whole plant vigor, and natural flower senescence were investigated in homozygous and heterozygous transgenic ethylene-insensitive CaMV35S::etr1-1 petunias (Petunia ×hybrida `Mitchell Diploid'). Homozygous or heterozygous plants were used to determine any maternal and/or paternal effects of the CaMV35S::etr1-1 transgene. All experiments except for those used to determine natural flower senescence characteristics were conducted in both high and low temperature greenhouses to determine the effect of temperature stress on transgenic plants when compared to wild-type. Results indicated that ethylene-insensitive plants had a decrease in pollen viability, root dry mass, seed weight, and seed germination. Fruit ripening, seed germination, and seed weight were maternally regulated. In contrast, the CaMV35S::etr1-1 transgene is completely dominant in its effect on natural flower senescence.