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Namiko Yamori, Yoriko Matsushima, and Wataru Yamori

pigments (chlorophylls and carotenoids) and photoreceptor pigments (phytochromes, cryptochromes, and phototropins) ( Fukuda et al., 2016 ). Light wavelength (as well as light intensity and the photoperiod) greatly affects plant growth ( Inada, 1976 ; Lin

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Kevin M. Folta

flowering behaviors is linked to polymorphism in these genes ( Wu et al., 2014 ). Polymorphism in photoreceptors such as phytochromes and cryptochromes have been described as the genetic basis for flowering behaviors in a number of species, including natural

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Aneta K. Studzinska, David S. Gardner, James D. Metzger, David Shetlar, Robert Harriman, and T. Karl Danneberger

Physiol. 135 254 265 Brutnell, T. 2006 Phytochrome and light control of plant development, p. 417–443. In: Taiz, L. and E. Zeiger (eds.). Plant physiology. 4th Ed. Sinauer Associates, Inc. Publishers, Sunderland, MA. Busov, V.B. Meilan, R. Pearce, D.W. Ma

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Fumiomi Takeda, D. Michael Glenn, and Gary W. Stutte

regulated by daylength, the leaves are the primary recipient of the external signal that is transmitted to the meristem where the flowering response occurs ( Salisbury and Ross, 1992 ). Light is absorbed by phytochrome (Phy) and cryptochrome (blue light

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Jia Liu, Tingting Xue, and Yongbao Shen

seed germination in the absence of red light ( Beligni and Lamattina, 2000 ), breaks seed dormancy, and affects growth ( Beligni and Lamattina, 2001 ; Durner and Klessig, 1999 ). Giba et al. (1998) suggested the involvement of NO in the phytochrome

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Alexandra Boini, Enrico Muzzi, Aude Tixier, Maciej Zwieniecki, Luigi Manfrini, and Luca Corelli Grappadelli

, D.J. King, R.W. Whitelam, G.C. Boylan, M.T. Wagner, D. Quail, P.H. 1995 Flowering responses to altered expression of phytochrome in mutants and transgenic lines of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh Plant Physiol. 108 1495 1503 doi: https

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Devdutt Kamath, Yun Kong, Chevonne Dayboll, and Youbin Zheng

Lopez, 2014 , 2015 ), possibly because R and B trigger high activity of both phytochrome and cryptochrome ( Casal and Mazzella, 1998 ; Demotes-Mainard et al., 2016 ). If machine-harvest of cuttings is intended, RB-LED may not be suitable for growing

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Ben-Hong Wu, Ning Niu, Ji-Hu Li, and Shao-Hua Li

be required in the skin for satisfying the large demand for carbon skeletons of the biosynthetic pathways operating in this tissue (e.g., anthocyanin synthesis). Phytochrome C (spot 11, function 02.30), a photoreceptor, has multiple functions

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Allison Hurt, Roberto G. Lopez, and Joshua K. Craver

under HPS compared with LED SL for gerbera, impatiens, and petunia seedlings may be a result of the far-red light (≈6 µmol·m –2 ·s –1 ) emitted from the HPS lamps. This response is linked directly to the photoreceptor phytochrome, which detects changes

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Thierry E. Besançon

was still noted for seeds exposed to R light. Conversely, FR light treatment for 15 min caused lower germination when applied alone or after irradiation with R light, indicating that phytochrome is involved in the germination process of cranberry seeds