Cucumber plants were cultured in a greenhouse and subjected to either well-watered or water deficit conditions that reduced leaf water potential to-0.6 MPa. Leaf gas exchange measurements were conducted using an open gas exchange system. Carbon dioxide assimilation (A) attained saturation at a photon flux density (PFD) of 1000 μmol·m-2·s-1 (400-700 nm). There were no significant differences in A at ambient temperatures between 16 and 34C. Water use efficiency decreased rapidly with increasing vapor-pressure deficits to 2.5 kPa. Water stressed plants had lower stomata1 conductances and CO2 assimilation rates. The decrease in A was only partially due to stomata1 closure. The A vs. intercellular CO (Ci) relationship for stressed leaves revealed a change in the CO, compensation point, and that nonstomatal factors were contributing to the decrease in A in stressed plants. Thus, feedback inhibition of A may have occurred through photoassimilate accumulation. The concentrations of sucrose and raffinose were higher, and the concentration of stachyose was lower in leaves of stressed than of well-watered plants.
Abdul K. Janoudi, Irvin E. Widders, and James A. Flore
Y.L. Qian and J.D. Fry
Textbook recommendations suggest that turf should be watered deeply and infrequently to encourage drought resistance. Data supporting this recommendation are lacking, however. Studies were done to determine the influence of irrigation frequency on `Meyer' zoysiagrass (Zoysia japonica Steud.) rooting and drought resistance. Turf was established on a silt loam soil in 27-cm-diameter by 92-cm-deep containers in the greenhouse. Irrigation was performed daily or at the onset of wilt with a water volume equal to daily or cumulative evapotranspiration of well-watered turf in small weighing lysimeters. After 90 days of irrigation treatments, a dry-down was imposed during which no additional water was applied for >50 days. Compared to turf irrigated daily, turf watered at the onset of wilt exhibited: i) lower (more-negative) leaf water and osmotic potentials prior to the onset of drought; ii) higher leaf water potential and better turf quality at the end of dry-down; and iii) deeper rooting as indicated by lower soil moisture content at 50- and 70-cm depths at the end of dry down.
J.G. Norcini, P.C. Andersen, and G.W. Knox
Leaf physiology and plant growth of Photinia x fraseri Dress were assessed when grown under full sunlight or (100% sun) or polypropylene shadecloth with a light transmittance of 69%, 47%, or 29% sun. Plants in 69% or 47% sun usually had the highest midday net CO2 assimilation rates (A). Net CO, assimilation rate was most dependent on photosynthetic photon flex (PPF R2 = 0.60), whereas stomata] conductance to water vapor was primarily influenced by vapor pressure deficit (R2 = 0.69). Stomatal conductance was often inversely related to sun level, and intercellular CO2 concentration was often elevated under 29% sun. Midday relative leaf water content and leaf water potential were unaffected by light regime. Light-saturated A was achieved at ≈ 1550 and 1150 μmol·m-2·s-1 for 100% and 29% sun-grown plants, respectively. Under 29% sun, plants had a lower light compensation point and a higher A at PPF < 1100 μmol·m-2·s-1. Total growth was best under 100% sun in terms of growth index (GI) increase, total leaf area, number of leaves, and dry weight (total, stem, leaf, and root), although plants from all treatments had the same GI increase by the end of the experiment. Plants in all treatments had acceptable growth habit (upright and well branched); however, plants grown in 29% sun were too sparsley foliated to be considered marketable. There were no differences in growth among the four treatments 7 months after the Photinia were transplanted to the field.
Horst W. Caspari, M. Hossein Behboudian, and David J. Chalmers
Five-year old `Hosui' Asian pear (Pyrus serotina Rehder) trees growing in drainage lysimeters and trained onto a Tatura trellis were subjected to three different irrigation regimes. Weekly water use (WU) was calculated using the mass-balance approach. Soil-water content of control lysimeters was kept at pot capacity, while deficit irrigation was applied before [regulated deficit irrigation (RDI)] and during the period of rapid fruit growth [late deficit irrigation (LDI)]. Soil-water content was maintained at ≈50% and 75% of pot capacity for RDI and LDI, respectively. Deficit irrigation reduced mean WU during RDI and LDI by 20%. The reduced WU was caused by lower stomatal conductance (gs) on deficit-irrigated trees. RDI trees had more-negative diurnal leaf water potentials (ψl). The ψl, gs, and WU remained lower for 2 weeks after RDI was discontinued. RDI reduced shoot extension and summer pruning weights, whereas winter pruning weights were not different between treatments. Except for the final week of RDI, fruit growth was not reduced, and fruit from RDI grew faster than the control during the first week after RDI. In contrast, fruit volume measurements showed that fruit growth was clearly inhibited by LDI. Final fruit size and yield, however, were not different between treatments. Return bloom was reduced by RDI but was not affected by LDI.
Stephanie E. Burnett, Svoboda V. Pennisi, Paul A. Thomas, and Marc W. van Iersel
Polyethylene glycol 8000 (PEG-8000) was applied to a soilless growing medium at the concentrations of 0, 15, 20, 30, 42, or 50 g·L-1 to impose controlled drought. Salvia (Salvia splendens F. Sellow. ex Roem & Shult.) seeds were planted in the growing medium to determine if controlled drought affects morphology and anatomy of salvia. Polyethylene glycol decreased emergence percentage and delayed emergence up to 5 days. Stem elongation of salvia treated with the five lowest concentrations was reduced up to 35% (21 days after seeding), and salvia were a maximum of 53% shorter and the canopy was 20% more narrow compared to nontreated seedlings 70 days after seeding. These morphological changes were attributed to PEG-8000 mediated reduction in leaf water potential (Ψw). The growing medium Ψw ranged from -0.29 to -0.85 MPa in PEG-8000 treated plants, and plant height was positively correlated with Ψw 21 days after seeding. Stem diameter of PEG-treated seedlings was reduced up to 0.4 mm mainly due to reductions in vascular cross-sectional area. Xylem cross-sectional area decreased more than stem and phloem cross-sectional area. Polyethylene glycol 8000 reduced vessel element number, but not diameter.
William R. Graves, Robert J. Joly, and Michael N. Dana
Honey locust (Gleditsia triacanthos var. inermis Wind.) and tree-of-heaven Ailanthus altissima (Mill.) Swingle] sometimes are exposed to high root-zone temperatures in urban microclimates. The objective of this study was to test the hypothesis that seedlings of these species differ in how elevated root-zone temperature affects growth, leaf water relations, and root hydraulic properties. Shoot extension, leaf area, root: shoot ratio, and root and shoot dry weights were less for tree-of-heaven grown with the root zone at 34C than for those with root zones at 24C. Tree-of-heaven with roots at 34C had a lower mean transpiration rate (E) than those grown at 24C, but leaf water potential (ψ1) was similar at both temperatures. In contrast, shoot extension of seedlings of honey locust grown with roots at 34C was greater than honey locust at 24C, E was similar at both temperatures, and ψ1 was reduced at 34C. Hydraulic properties of root systems grown at both temperatures were determined during exposure to pressure in solution held at 24 or 34C. For each species at both solution temperatures, water flux through root systems (Jv) grown at 34C was less than for roots grown at 24C. Roots of tree-of-heaven grown at 34C had lower hydraulic conductivity coefficients (Lp) than those grown at 24C, but Lp of roots of honey locust grown at the two temperatures was similar.
Stephanie Burnett, Marc van Iersel, and Paul Thomas
Osmotic compounds, such as polyethylene glycol 8000 (PEG-8000), reduce plant elongation by imposing controlled drought. However, the effects of PEG-8000 on nutrient uptake are unknown. Impatiens `Dazzler Pink' (Impatiens walleriana Hook. F.) were grown hydroponically in modified Hoagland solutions containing 0, 10, 17.5, 25, 32.5, 40, 47.5, 55, or 62.5 g·L–1 PEG-8000. Impatiens were up to 68% shorter than control plants when grown with PEG-8000 in the nutrient solution. Plants treated with PEG-8000 rates above 25 g·L–1 were either damaged or similar in size to seedlings treated with 25 g·L–1 of PEG-8000. Impatiens leaf water potentials (Ψw) were positively correlated with plant height. PEG-8000 reduced the electrical conductivity of Hoagland solutions as much as 40% compared to nontreated Hoagland solutions, suggesting that PEG-8000 may bind some of the nutrient ions in solution. Foliar tissue of PEG-treated impatiens contained significantly less nitrogen, calcium, zinc, and copper, but significantly more phosphorus and nickel than tissue from nontreated impatiens. However, no nutrient deficiency symptoms were induced.
Patricia R. Knight, J. Roger Harris, and Jody K. Fanelli
Root severance during field harvesting alters the water status of a tree, resulting in water stress and reduced post-transplant growth. Two experiments, using Acer rubrum L. (red maple), determined the influence of root severance at harvest on sap flow and xylem embolism. Trees 1.5–1.8 m tall (4 years old) were utilized in the first experiment, and trees 1.2–1.5 m tall (2 years old) were utilized in the second. Sap flow sensors were installed on the 4-year-old trees prior to root severance and remained on the trees until 1 week after harvest. Within 1 day after root severance sap flow was reduced and remained lower than nontransplanted (control) trees for the remainder of the experiment. Leaf stomatal conductance (Cs) of transplanted trees 1 week after root severance was lower than that of control trees, but leaf water potentials (ψ) were similar. In the second experiment, sap flow was reduced relative to control trees within 2 h after root severance. Although Cs was reduced 4 hours after root severance, ψ was not. Embolism increased within 24 hours of root severance. These results indicate that root severance quickly induces increased levels of embolism, which is associated with reduced sap flow.
Sour orange seedlings were grown in water culture to which one of seven aromatic compounds, associated with allelopathic effects, was added to produce concentrations ranging from 0.5 to 2.0 mM. Leaf water potential (ψ1), leaf stomatal conductance (gs), and whole plant transpiration (T) were measured during a 7-day treatment period. At the end of that period, the total and average leaf surface area, shoot elongation, and fresh weight gain of seedlings were determined. Solutions of vanillic, coumaric, and ferulic acids of 2mM concentration reduced ψ1, gs, and T. Reductions of gs, and T but not (ψ1) occurred when vanillic acid of 1mM concentration was applied. Solutions of vanillic (0.5; 1.0; 2.0mM), coumaric (1; 2mM), cinnamic (1mM), or chlorogenic (1; 2mM) acids reduced fresh weight gain of seedlings. Only the coumaric and chlorogenic acids treatments of 2mM concentration reduced shoot elongation. No treatment affected total or individual leaf area. Gallic and caffeic acids had no effect on sour orange water relations and growth.
R. Thomas Fernandez, Ronald L. Perry, and James A. Flore
`Imperial Gala' apple trees (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) on M.9 EMLA, MM.111, and Mark rootstocks were subjected to two drought-stress and recovery periods in a rainshelter. Water relations, gas-exchange parameters per unit leaf area and per tree, chlorophyll fluorescence, and leaf abscisic acid content were determined during each stress and recovery period. Whole-plant calculated gas exchange best indicated plant response to drought stress, with consistent reductions in CO2 assimilation, transpiration, and leaf conductance. Variable and maximal chlorophyll fluorescence and fluorescence quenching were not as sensitive to stress. Other fluorescence parameters showed little difference. The most consistent decreases due to stress for gas exchange per square meter were in transpiration and leaf conductance, with few differences in CO2 assimilation and fewer for mesophyll conductance, internal CO2 concentration, and water-use efficiency. Leaf water potential was consistently lower during drought stress and returned to control values upon irrigation. Leaf abscisic acid content was higher for drought-stressed trees on M.9 EMLA than control trees during the stress periods but inconsistently different for the other rootstock treatments. Trees on M.9 EMLA were least affected by drought stress, MM.111 was intermediate, and Mark was the most sensitive; these results are consistent with the growth data.