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W.J. Bramlage, S.A. Weis, and D.W. Greene

In a population of `Delicious' apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) with varying seed number at harvest, fruit size and Ca concentration in fruit increased with seed number. Neither K nor Mg concentration in fruit was related to seed number. In another population of `McIntosh' apples from 50 commercial orchard blocks, the percentage of fruit that developed senescent breakdown, a Ca-deficiency disorder, decreased linearly as seed number per fruit increased. Low seed number is probably a factor contributing to Ca deficiency in apple fruit.

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X. Fan, J.P. Mattheis, M.E. Patterson, and J.K. Fellman

Total starch and amylose (AM) concentration and a starch index (SI) were determined in `Fuji' apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) fruit from weekly harvests in 1990 and 1991. As apples matured, SI scores increased and total starch and amylose content decreased. The percentage of AM in the total starch decreased as the apples matured. Because KI solutions interact efficiently only with AM, the SI is less reliable in representing total starch during later stages of `Fuji' apple maturation.

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Anne-Marie Brault and Domingos de Oliveira

In `McIntosh' apples (Malus domestica Borkh.), the number of well-formed seeds and the number of fertilized ovules (well-formed plus aborted seeds) were correlated to yield an index of asymmetry for individual fruit. In spite of different flowering and pollination conditions in 1990 and 1991, the index of asymmetry decreased curvilinearly with increases in the number of well-formed seeds and of fertilized ovules in both years.

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John Norelli, JoAnn Mills, and Herb Aldwinckle

In vitro–grown leaves of Malus ×domestica Borkh. cv. Royal Gala were either crush-wounded with forceps, cut, or left whole, and then inoculated with A. tumefaciens strain EHA105 (p35SGUS_INT), with and without vacuum infiltration. Transformation was quantified 13 days after inoculation by determining the rate of β-glucuronidase (GUS) activity. Leaf wounding by crushing with nontraumatic forceps significantly increased transformation when compared with cutting leaves. Vacuum infiltration of inoculum had no effect on transformation.

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Morris Ingle, J.C. Morris, and M.C. D'Souza

Three types of soil were mixed with water containing DPA (2000 mg·liter-1) and benomyl (300 mg·liter-1) at 1% to 5% (w/w). `Rome' apples (Malus domestica Borkh.) were dipped in the mixtures over 8 days. The efficiency of DPA as a scald inhibitor was not consistently affected by soil type, soil concentration, or age of mixture. Chemical names used: methyl[1-[(butylamino)carbonyl]-1 H-benzimidazol-2-yl]carbamate (benomyl); diphenldyamine (DPA).

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Hilde Nybom, Susan Gardiner, and Charles J. Simon

Individual-specific DNA fragment patterns were obtained by hybridization of endonuclease-digested apple (Malus ×domestica Borkh.) DNA with a probe (pAR72) derived from the rDNA spacer region of the `White Angel' crab apple. Fragment detection was carried out with a nonradioactive method, using a horseradish peroxidase-catalyzed luminol oxidation. Paternity could be inferred by comparison of the fragment pattern generated by a seedling with those derived from putative parents.

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John T.A. Proctor and Ido Schechter

`McIntosh', `Delicious', and `Idared' apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) fruitlet ovaries were artificially damaged with a needle four times after full bloom to assess effects of such damage on fruit growth and development. The damage induced fruit drop, reduced fruit weight, and increased the incidence of fruit deformity, but had no effect on fruit length: diameter ratio. Fruit fresh weight and deformity were correlated with seed per fruit at harvest.

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Warren C. Stiles

Nutritional status of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) trees may influence regularity of cropping through effects of some nutrient elements at various stages of the floral initiation, development, pollination, fertilization and fruit setting process. Other elements may influence regularity of cropping more indirectly as consequences of their effects on physiological processes or by modifying the sensitivity of the tree to adverse environmental factors. This report provides a brief summary of reported impacts of mineral nutrition on regularity of cropping.

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Lailiang Cheng and Richard Raba

, G.H. Hogue, E.J. 1997 Sources of N for leaf growth in a high-density apple ( Malus domestica ) orchard irrigated with ammonium nitrate solution Tree Physiol. 17 733 739 Neilsen, D. Millard, P

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G.H. Neilsen, J. Beulah, E.J. Hoguel, and R.S. Utkhede

Apple seedling height after 7 weeks of growth in greenhouse pots was compared with total first year shoot growth of `McIntosh' or `Delicious' apple trees [Malus domestica (Borkh.)] on M.26 rootstock for eight orchards and five soil treatments. The apple trees were replanted in old orchard sites with the same treatments applied in the planting hole as were tested in the greenhouse. The pot test successfully predicted treatments that increased first year shoot growth in 23 of 30 opportunities. However, a less precise relationship (R2 = 0.38) existed between total first year shoot growth (Y) of `Summerland Red McIntosh' on M.26 rootstock and seedling height (X).