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Takanori Takeuchi, Miwako Cecile Matsushita, Soichiro Nishiyama, Hisayo Yamane, Kiyoshi Banno, and Ryutaro Tao

’ apple trees grown at the experimental farm of the Department of Agriculture, Shinshu University (Nagano, Japan; 36′ N and 139′ E). The trees were grafted on either ‘JM1’ or ‘JM2’ rootstocks (both Malus prunifolia ). The effects of each rootstock on

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Giverson Mupambi, Nadia A. Valverdi, Hector Camargo-Alvarez, Michelle Reid, Lee Kalcsits, Tory Schmidt, Felipe Castillo, and Jonathan Toye

damage to the surface of apple ( Malus domestica ) fruit. Sunburn is caused by overheating of the fruit surface due to excessive solar radiation and high ambient temperatures ( Racsko and Schrader, 2012 ; Wünsche et al., 2004 ). There are three types of

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Jianguo Li, Hong Zhu, and Rongcai Yuan

reactions. In addition, the amplified products by real-time quantitative PCR were sequenced as described by Dal Cin et al. (2005) . After validation tests, normalization to Malus Mill. actin was performed using the ΔΔC T method described by Applied

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C.R. Unrath, J.D. Obermiller, A. Green, and S.J. McArtney

. Fruit Sci. 3 63 79 Dal Cin, V. Dorigoni, A. Ramina, A. Boschetti, A. Danesin, M. Botton, A. 2008 Ethylene and preharvest drop: The effect of AVG and NAA on fruit abscission in apple ( Malus domestica L. Borkh) Plant Growth Regulat. 56 317 325 Gardner, F

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Heidi Hargarten, Sumyya Waliullah, Lee Kalcsits, and Loren A. Honaas

untargeted (e.g., RNA-Seq) techniques is accurate previous knowledge of gene sequences. As more genomes become available for important crop species, recently so for rosaceous specialty crops such as Malus ( Daccord et al., 2017 ; Velasco et al., 2010

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Esmaeil Fallahi, Bahar Fallahi, Bahman Shafii, and Zabihollah Zamani

Drift’ crab apple ( Malus × ‘ Snowdrift ’) on Bud 9 rootstock (C & O Nursery) was planted in each row as a pollenizer between every 10 ‘Fuji’ trees, because this arrangement ensures sufficient pollination to the actual trees ( Westwood, 1993 ). Trees

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Fang Geng, Renae Moran, Michael Day, William Halteman, and Donglin Zhang

propagation of Prunus tenella Batsch. cv. ‘Firehill’: Control of vitrification; increase of the multiplication rate and growth by chilling Sci. Hort. 52 143 155 Brand, M.H. 1993 Initiating cultures of Halesia and Malus : Influence of flushing stage and

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Maude Lachapelle, Gaétan Bourgeois, and Jennifer R. DeEll

and Methods Experimental sites and years of harvest. Firmness data were obtained from ‘McIntosh’ apples ( Malus × domestica Borkh. cv. McIntosh) harvested in nine sites, five in Quebec (Saint-Paul d’Abbotsford, Franklin, Frelighsburg, Oka, and Mont

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Eric Curry

The presence of russet on ‘Golden Delicious' ( Malus × domestica Borkh.) apples has long been a concern to producers and marketers of fresh fruit throughout the world because it detracts from the smooth, uniform finish of the fruit and results in

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Carole L. Bassett and D. Michael Glenn

allocation, and actin served as a light-insensitive control. Materials and Methods Collection of plant material. Trees of Malus × domestica ‘Empire’/‘M.7A’ (M.7A) were used in this study. The apple orchard was planted at Kearneysville, WV (lat. 39.3° N