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Sherrod A. Baden and Joyce G. Latimer

A brushing system for vegetable transplants that is adjustable, easy to use, and provides uniform brushing action was designed and constructed. Using this system, the height of several species and cultivars of vegetable transplants was reduced 15% to 50%. Quality and uniformity also were improved, and edge effects on growth were reduced.

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Wayne C. Porter

Black polyethylene, perforated clear polyethylene, double-slitted clear polyethylene, spunbonded polyester, and a bare soil control were evaluated for their effect on the number, size, and distribution of production of sweet potato transplants. The perforated and double-slitted bed covers increased the weight and number of sweet potato transplants compared with the control or with black polyethylene at the first harvest in 1986 and 1987, Seed roots covered with the spunbonded polyester bed cover produced more plants of greater weight than seed roots covered with bare soil at the first harvest in 1986 only. Black polyethylene treatments produced the greatest weight and number of transplants at the second harvest (8 to 12 days later) in both years. There were no significant differences in total weight and number of transplants among black polyethylene, perforated or double-slitted clear polyethylene treatments in 1986. Total transplant number and weight from plots covered with spunbonded polyester were lower than those from plots with any other bed covers.

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Kristine M. Lang, Ajay Nair, and Alexander G. Litvin

Grafted tomato transplants ( Solanum lycopersicum ) have become an important production tool for vegetable growers within the United States ( Grieneisen et al., 2018 ; Masterson et al., 2016a ; Meyer, 2016 ; Rivard and Louws, 2008 ). Vegetable

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Warren Roberts, Jim Duthie, and Wes Watkins

Wet soils can prevent growers from transplanting tomatoes at the ideal size and age. Experiments were conducted to determine the length of time that transplants can be held before yield is reduced Also, different techniques for holding and hardening plants were compared. Seven ages of `Sunny' tomato plants (4, 5, 6, 7, 8, 9, 10 weeks old at transplanting) were either grown normally, grown with limited water, or grown with limited fertilizer. Plants were grown in trays containing 128 cells, with each cell approximately 3.2 by 3.2 by 11 cm. Water was applied for 3 minutes either once a day or twice a day. Fertilizer (20-20-20) was applied either once a week or once during the entire seedling production period. Transplants were later planted in the field. The experiment was conducted in 1990, 1991, and 1993. The yield response to transplant age was quadratic, with maximum yield occurring with 6, 7, and 8 week old transplants. In general, the greatest yield occurred when water was withheld, and the lowest yield occurred when fertilizer was withheld from the transplants

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J.E. Brown, R.P Yates, C. Stevens, and V.A. Khan

Effects of planting methods and rowcover on the production of yellow crookneck squash, Cucurbita pepo L. var. melopepo Alef., were evaluated over 2 years at the E.V. Smith Research Center, Shorter, Ala. Summer squash was direct-seeded or transplanted in the field with or without black plastic mulch and grown with or without rowcover. Yield of transplanted squash was significantly increased over the same squash direct-seeded. Neither plastic mulch nor rowcover had an effect on summer squash production. Transplants matured 8 to 10 days earlier than the direct-seeded plants.

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Bizhen Hu, Mark A. Bennett, and Matthew D. Kleinhenz

. 2012 Microclimate modification using eco-friendly nets for high-quality tomato transplant production by small-scale farmers in east Africa HortTechnology 22 292 298 Hernández-Herrera, R.M. Santacruz-Ruvalcaba, F. Ruiz-López, M.A. Norrie, J. Hernández

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Richard L. Parish

This article is a review of the current status in planting and transplanting equipment and practices for vegetable crops. A review of horticultural and agricultural engineering literature is supplemented by information from an informal survey of members of American Society of Agricultural Engineers (ASAE) committee PM-48, Fruit and Vegetable Production Engineering, and other engineers and horticulturists working in this field. Areas covered include precision seed metering, seed placement, and high-speed transplanting with automated plant handling.

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S. M. Olson and Salvadore J. Locascio

Four experiments were conducted to evaluate the influence of transplant age and container size on `Green Duke' broccoli production. Transplant ages (weeks from seeding) were 3, 4, and 5 weeks in Exp. A, 4, 5, and 6 weeks in Exps. B and D and 3, 4, 5, and 6 weeks in Exp. C. Cell sizes were 2.0 cm (width) × 3.2 cm deep (2.0 cm), 2.5 cm × 7.2 cm deep (2.5 cm), and 3.8 cm × 6.4 cm deep (3.8 cm) with each transplant age. With the smallest container size (2.0 cm), yields were significantly lower in 3 of 4 experiments as compared to the 3.8 cm container size. In 2 of 4 experiments, yields were lower with the 2 cm size as compared to the 2.8 cm container size. In Exps. A and B transplant age did not influence yield, but use of the oldest transplants in Exp. C resulted in reduced yields while use of the oldest transplants in Exp. D resulted in the highest yields Generally, head weights followed similar patterns to the yields.

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Daniel I. Leskovar, Daniel J. Cantliffe, and Peter J. Stoffella

Tomato, cv. `Sunny' containerized transplants produced either with overhead (SP1) or sub (flotation) (SP2) irrigation were established in the field in fall, winter, and spring. Leaf area (LA), root volume (RV), and dry weights of shoots (SDW) and roots (RDW) were measured weekly before and after transplanting. In fall 1987, SP1 with 44 cm2 LA, 275 mg SDW, 68 mg RDW, and 0.9 ml RV at transplanting (T0) had 33% more fruit yield than SP2 transplants with 20 cm2 LA, 236 mg SDW, 62 mg RDW, and 0.6 ml RV at T0. In spring and winter 1988, SDW, RDW, and RV increased uniformly in both SP1 and SP2 plants, and yields did not differ significantly. In spring 1989, at T0, SP1 had 182 mg SDW and 7.8 shoot/root ratio (S:R) and SP2 had 92 mg SDW and 4.6 S:R, thereafter SDW and S:R ratios were not different and yields were unaffected. In fall 1989, SP1 total fruit yeild (52.3 t.ha-1) did not differ significantly from that of SP2 (47.4 t.ha-l) plants. Sub irrigated transplants may have similar fruit yields than overhead irrigated transplants provided plants are kept with minimum stress before establishment.

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Warley M. Nascimento

The growing of transplants in plug cell trays is the primary method of producing brassica transplants in many countries. Seed quality is an important aspect to achieve success in transplant production. Seed size may affect seed performance, seedling growth and development of brassica transplants. Seeds of cauliflower (`Vitoria de vero') and cabbage (`Unio') from Embrapa Vegetables were used in this study. During seed conditioning, seeds were classified using round screens generating three (>1.5, 1.5-2.0, and 2.0-2.5 mm) and four (>1.5, 1.5-2.0, 2.0-2.5, and < 2.5 mm) seed size categories, for cauliflower and cabbage, respectively. The original seed lot was used as control. Seed weight increased with seed size. Seed germination (laboratory) and seedling emergence (greenhouse) were not affected by seed size. In both species, root and shoot weight, and leaf area, measured 30 days after seeding, in greenhouse conditions, increased with seed size. Also, transplants from larger seed size resulted in a significantly higher root weight, shoot weight, and leaf area relative to the original (control) seeds. The results indicate that, overall, an adequate seed conditioning improve brassica transplant quality.