Defoliation by pests was simulated with potted tree model systems and field-grown trees. `Redchief'/M.7 apple trees were grown in 10 1 pots as a single shoot. Forty-five days after 25%, 50%, or 75% removal of apical or basal leaf number, new leaf dry weight (produced after treatment) was 23%, 53%, and 45% higher, respectively, for apically treated trees, and -7%, 61%, and 64% higher for basally treated trees, than control trees. Root dry weight was reduced by as much as 59% (apical 75% removed). Photosynthesis following 75% leaf removal was inhibited 1 day after treatment, but increased above the control within 3 days. However, by 35 days after treatment photosynthesis had declined to 53% of control. Leaf removal (50%) June 15 (1990) of 4-year old `Early Granny'/Mark increased net photosynthesis by 40% within 8 days of treatment. Trunk cross-sectional area increase of June- and twice-(June 15 and July 30) defoliated trees was 35% of control trees. Leaf nitrogen content (% dry wt.) in September was 1.75 for twice-defoliated trees compared to 1.58 for control trees.
Mark A. DenHerder and Curt R. Rom
Kuo-Tan Li and Alan N. Lakso
Summer pruning increases canopy light penetration and re-exposes spur leaves of the interior canopy of apple trees (Malus ×domestica Borkh.). However, we hypothesized that leaf photosynthetic ability is determined by the pre-pruning light environment, and the re-exposure intensity after summer pruning is incapable of restoring the photosynthesis efficiency of shaded leaves. To test this hypothesis, a commercial-type thinning-cuts pruning was applied to mature central leader `Empire'/M.26 apple trees. Changes in light availability, leaf net photosynthesis (Pn), photosystem II efficiency, and specific leaf weight (SLW) were recorded periodically before and after pruning. Leaf photosynthesis declined slightly through the growing season and was well correlated with pre-pruning light availability until late September. Although Pn decreased more substantially late in the season on exterior leaves than on interior leaves, Pn of leaves in the inner and middle canopies was lower than exterior leaves until late October. Maximum efficiency of photosystem II of dark-adapted leaves, measured by chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv/Fm), was not related to prior exposure or re-exposure. Specific leaf weight was well correlated with pre-pruning light availability and with leaf Pn in August but not in October. Results suggested that commercial summer pruning significantly increases light environments in the inner and middle canopies. However, light availability at interior and middle canopy sites was still much lower than exterior canopy and, consequently, leaf photosynthetic ability did not increase after summer pruning.
Marc van Iersel and Jong-Goo Kang
Subirrigation is an economically attractive irrigation method for producing bedding plants. Because excess fertilizer salts are not leached from the growing medium, salts can accumulate in the growing medium. Fertilizer guidelines developed for overhead irrigation may not be appropriate for subirrigation systems. Our objective was to quantify the effect of the fertilizer concentration (N at 0, 135, 285, and 440 mg·L–1) on whole-plant CO2 exchange and growth of subirrigated pansies. Whole plant CO2 exchange rate (net photosynthesis and dark respiration) was measured once every 10 min for 31 days. Whole-plant photosynthesis, dark respiration, and carbon use efficiency increased during the experiment. Fertilizer concentration started to affect the growth rate of the plants after approximately 7 days. Maximum photosynthesis and growth were achieved with N at about 280 mg·L–1 in the fertilizer solution [electrical conductivity = 2 dS·m–1]. Growth was reduced by ≈10% when the plants were fertilized with N at 135 and 440 mg·L–1 compared to 280 mg·L–1. Growth of plants watered without any fertilizer was greatly reduced, and plants showed symptoms of N and K deficiency. The size of the root system decreased and the shoot: root ratio increased with increasing fertilizer concentration, but the size of the root system was adequate in all treatments. These results indicate that subirrigated pansies can tolerate a wide range of fertilizer concentrations with relatively little effect on plant growth.
Esmaeil Fallahi, W. Michael Colt, Bahar Fallahi, and Ik-Jo Chun
Tree fruit rootstocks are used to influence precocity, tree size, fruit quality, yield efficiency, mineral uptake, and to withstand adverse environmental conditions. In this paper, we will briefly discuss the history and literature of apple (Malus domestica) rootstocks and their effects on scion tree growth, yield, fruit quality, leaf mineral nutrition, and photosynthesis. Then, the results of our long-term study on the effects of rootstocks on tree growth, yield, fruit quality and leaf mineral nutrition, and one season of photosynthesis measurement in `BC-2 Fuji' will be presented and discussed. In this study, `Fuji' trees on `Malling 9 NAKBAT337' (M.9) rootstock had the smallest trunk cross-sectional area (TCA), highest yield efficiency, and were the most precocious followed by those on `East Malling-Long Ashton 26' (M.26 EMLA) and `East Malling-Long Ashton 7' (M.7 EMLA). Trees on M.7 EMLA often had larger fruit with less color than those on M.9 and M.26 EMLA. Trees on M.7 EMLA frequently had greater leaf K than those on other rootstocks. Trees on M.26 EMLA always had greater leaf Mg than those on other rootstocks. Leaves from the current terminal shoots (CTS) of trees on M.9 had higher net photosynthesis and transpiration than those on M.7 EMLA rootstock during 1998 growing season.
Cranberry [Vaccinium macrocarpon (Ait.)] yield has been associated with photosynthate supply. However, the impact of temperature and radiation on photosynthesis of the cranberry plant is not well understood. The objective of this experiment was to characterize the photosynthetic response to radiation and temperature in order to develop a model for estimation of cranberry photosynthetic rates. Two cranberry cultivars, `Stevens' and `Ben Lear', were tested for photosynthetic response at air temperatures ranging from 15 to 35 °C and radiation intensities from 200 to 1200 μmol·m-2·s-1. Depending on temperature, maximum photosynthesis (Pmax) was ≈10 or 12 μmol CO2/m2/s (net photosynthesis) and the saturating radiation level was estimated to be 600 to 800 μmol·m-2·s-1. Cranberry quantum yield was estimated as 0.03 mol CO2/mol photon. Both models; Blackman and the nonrectangular hyperbola with a Θ (angle of curvature) of 0.99 were a good fit for measured photosynthetic rates under controlled environment conditions. The disparity between modeled predicted values, and observed values in the field around midday, indicates a reduction in potential photosynthetic rates in a diurnal cycle that is consistent with the phenomenon of midday depression.
T-B Huang, R.L. Darnell, and K.E. Koch
Water and carbon budgets of individual citrus fruit were determined throughout their growth to quantify the demand for sucrose and water relative to developmental changes. Fruit transpiration, water accumulation, photosynthesis, respiration, and C gain were measured during this period for grapefruit (Citrus paradisii Macf.) and calamondin (Citrus madurensis Lour.). On a whole-fruit basis, estimated rates of grapefruit transpiration and mean daily water inflow decreased after the first third of development, whereas water apparently was lost freely throughout growth of the smaller, thin-peeled calamondins. Estimates of daily fruit C import remained relatively similar during the majority of grapefruit growth, increasing rapidly only as fruit neared maturation. A similar trend was observed in calamondins, although rates were more variable. Overall, estimated mean daily water inflow into “developing grapefruit decreased relative to that of sucrose inflow, resulting in a progressively higher ratio of sucrose transport to net water inflow. Values for these ratios rose from ≈; 10 to >300 g sucrose/liter of water, reaching levels of net water and sngar transfer that could both be accommodated by citrus phloem alone. Any additional entry into grapefruit appears to have been offset by xylem back-flow, because no other net water influx was observed.
Jens N. Wünsche, John W. Palmer, and Dennis H. Greer
Effect of crop load on tree growth, leaf characteristics, photosynthesis, and fruit quality of 5-year-old `Braeburn' apple [Malus sylvestris (L.) Mill. var. domestica (Borkh.) Mansf.] trees on Malling 26 (M.26) rootstock was examined during the 1994-95 growing season. Crop loads ranged from 0 to 57 kg/tree [0 to 1.6 kg fruit/cm2 trunk cross sectional area (TCA) or 0 to 8.7 fruit/cm2 TCA]. Fruit maturity as indicated by background color, starch/iodine score, and soluble solids was advanced significantly on low-cropping trees compared to high-cropping trees. Whole-canopy leaf area and percentage tree light interception increased linearly with a significant trend as crop load decreased. From midseason until fruit harvest, leaf photosynthesis decreased significantly on lighter cropping trees and similarly, a positive linear trend was found between whole-canopy gas exchange per unit area of leaf and crop load. Leaf starch concentration in midseason increased linearly as crop load decreased, providing some explanation for the increased down-regulation of photosynthesis on trees with lower crop loads. After fruit harvest, the previous crop loads had no effect on leaf photosynthesis and preharvest differences in whole-canopy gas exchange per unit area of leaf were less pronounced. At each measurement date, daily whole-canopy net carbon exchange and transpiration closely followed the diurnal pattern of incident photosynthetic photon flux. The photochemical yield and electron transport capacity depended on crop load. This was due mostly to reaction center closure before harvest and an increased nonphotochemical quenching after harvest.
Chieri Kubota, Makiko Ezawa, Toyoki Kozai, and Sandra B. Wilson
The effects of initial sucrose (suc) concentrations in the medium (S0) on the carbon balance and growth of sweetpotato [Ipomoea batatas (L.) Lam. `Beniazuma'] and tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. `HanaQueen') plantlets were studied under controlled environmental conditions. Plantlets were cultured with 0, 7.5, 15, or 30 g·L-1 of S0 under high photosynthetic photon flux (160 to 200 μmol·m-2·s-1) and CO2 enriched (1400 to 2050 μmol·mol-1) conditions. Net photosynthetic rate per leaf area (Pl) decreased and dry weight per plantlet (Wd) increased with increasing S0, but did not differ significantly between S0 of 7.5 to 30 g·L-1 for sweetpotato or 15 to 30 g·L-1 for tomato. Carbon influxes and effluxes of the plantlets by metabolism of medium suc and/or photosynthesis, and respiration were estimated based on measurements of in situ and steady state CO2 exchange rates and sugar uptake during culture. At S0 from 7.5 to 30 g·L-1, photosynthesis was responsible for 82% to 92% and 60% to 67% of carbohydrate assimilation for sweetpotato and tomato, respectively. Estimated carbon balances of plantlets based on the estimated and actual increases of moles of carbon in plant tissue demonstrated that in situ estimation of carbon balance was reasonably accurate for sweetpotato at S0 of 0 to 15 g·L-1 and for tomato at S0 of 0 g·L-1 and that the actual contribution of photosynthesis for tomato at high S0 might be lower than the values estimated in the present experiment. Results showed that initial suc concentration affected the relative contribution of photosynthesis on their carbon balances and that the responses were species specific. The failure of validation at S0 in a range specific to each species suggested the need for further study on carbon metabolism of in vitro plantlets cultured with sugar in the medium.
Renae E. Moran and Curt Rom.
Greenhouse grown `Lawspur Rome'/M.111 trained to single shoots were given the following shade (73%) treatments: 1) sun-all-day (control), 2) shade in the morning (am-shade), 3) shade in the afternoon (pm-shade) and 4) shade-all-day. All shade treatments increased shoot length and decreased dry weight/leaf area (DW/LA). Shade-all-day increased leaf no., LA/leaf and shoot dia. DW partitioning to leaves in shade-all-day was 19% greater than control and to roots was 34% less than control. Pn of am-shade did not increase in the afternoon when PFD was maximal. Saturated net photosynthesis (Pn) was 72% of control in am-shade, 84% of control in pm-shade and 62% in shade-all-day. Shade reduced Pn by 40% of control.
A.M. Armitage, N.G. Seager, I.J. Warrington, and D.H. Greer
A progressive increase in temperature from 14 to 30C resulted in linear increases in stem length and node number and decreases in stem diameter and stem strength. Higher temperatures also resulted in additional flower abortion, reduced time to flowering and fewer flowering stems per inflorescence. Reduction in the photosynthetic photon flux (PPF) from 695 to 315 μmole m-2s-1 had similar effects as increasing the temperature on vegetative parameters but had little effect on reproductive parameters. The rate of stem elongation was greatest at low PPF for all temperatures and at high temperature for all PPF treatments. Net photosynthesis rose between 14 and 22C and declined at 30C for all PPF treatments. Long photoperiods (12, 14 hr.) resulted in longer internodes, longer stems and more flowers per cyme than short photoperiods (8, 10 hr) but photoperiod had little effect on flowering time.