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Alireza Talaie* and Rasoul Akrami

The objective of this study was the identification of existing olive trees in eight regions of Kermanshah province and investigation of their fruit, seed, and leaf characteristics in order to be used in the olive production industry of Iran. The germination ability of olive seed in field and nursery were also studied. In this research, 61 genotypes were identified and their characteristics were studied. It was found out that the present genotypes of Kermanshah showed different vegetative and reproductive growth based on the climatic and topographic conditions. This was verified by cluster analysis of the genotypes of different regions, which showed clearly their far and close relations. It was found out that some of the genotypes in the region spite of their appearance differences have same origin and most probably should be considered as the same genotype. The results also showed that favorable seed bed, planting depth and scarification of the seeds have positive effects on their germination while scarification of the seeds without other treatments had no significant effect on the seed germination.

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Konstantinos F. Bertsouklis and Maria Papafotiou

; Mostafa et al., 2010 ). In the horticultural and forestry practice, the plants are propagated mainly by seed. However, there is rather confusing information concerning the ecophysiology of Arbutus sp. seed germination. Mesléard and Lepart (1991

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David M. Czarnecki II and Zhanao Deng

. The degree to which a plant is able to accomplish this goal is also one of the main factors determining the invasive potential of a species ( Dozier, 1999 ). Seed production and seed germination have been the primary criteria in evaluating exotic

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Yongjun Yue and John M. Ruter

. dasycalyx seed germination rates increased significantly after sulfuric acid scarification. Wang et al. (2012) also found that a 15-min sulfuric acid scarification treatment increased the seed germination rate and germination energy of Hibiscus hamabo

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M. E. Austin and J. S. Cundiff

Abstract

Blueberry seeds (Vaccinium ashei Reade cv. Tifblue) were aspirated into several terminal velocity (TV) grades in an elutriation column. Different light and temperature environments were used to germinate the seeds. In all tests, germination was best at TV grades 2.23 and 2.45. Seed remaining in the air columns after aspiration did not germinate. Light was necessary for germination.

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Sandra B. Wilson, Gary W. Knox, Keona L. Nolan, and James Aldrich

perpendicular widths [(width1 + width2) ÷ 2]. Growth index rates were calculated by subtracting the initial growth index from the final growth index. Seed germination and viability. Mature fruit were removed from plants in mesh bags and depulped by hand using a

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Phillip A. Wadl, Timothy A. Rinehart, Adam J. Dattilo, Mark Pistrang, Lisa M. Vito, Ryan Milstead, and Robert N. Trigiano

refine the standard seed germination protocol, in vitro seed germination methodology, and vegetative propagation techniques, including in vitro multiplication of cloned plantlets, to facilitate ex situ conservation and development of a new methodology for

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Joseph J. King and Mark P. Bridgen

Presowing treatments and temperature regimes were tested to improve germination of Alstroemeria hybrids 3 to 12 months following harvest. In addition, seeds from 20 intraspecific F1 hybrids of five selections were also tested 3 to 7 or 8 to 12 weeks following harvest. Seeds were pretreated by chipping the seedcoat above the embryo, general abrasion of the entire seedcoat, or soaking 12 hours in distilled water, GA, (0.029, 0.29, 2.9 mm), or KNO3 (0.5 and 1.0 m). Pretreatments were evaluated under three environmental regimes: 8 weeks at a constant 18-25C (warm), 4 weeks at 18-25C followed by 4 weeks at 7C (warm-cold), or 4 weeks at 7C followed by 4 weeks at 18-25C (cold-warm). There was an interaction between pretreatment and environmental regime for percent germination. Germination percentages for the water soak and GA, at 0.29 or 2.9 mm were significantly higher than for the other pretreatments, but were not significantly different from one another. The warm-cold environment yielded higher germination percentages than the other environments. The time to germination was longest for the cold-warm regime. This response depended on the genotype and the age of the seed. Chemical name used: gibberellic acid (GA3).

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Stanta Cotner, John R. Clark, and Eric T. Stafne

A study was conducted in the Winter–Spring 2004 to evaluate the effects of seed (pyrene) scarification period on blackberry (Rubus L. subgenus Rubus) genotypes that had a range of seed weights. The study was done in an attempt to identify optimum scarification period for variable seed weights for the purpose of increasing germination of blackberry seeds produced from hybridizations in the Arkansas blackberry breeding program. Scarification treatments of 1, 2, or 3 hours were used on 14 genotypes. Seeds were then stratified for 3.5 months and sowed on a commercial potting medium in a heated greenhouse. Germinating seedlings were counted over a 15-week period and total germination determined. Data analysis indicated significant genotype effect on germination but no scarification treatment nor genotype × scarification treatment interaction significance. The results indicated that scarification period did not affect germination and varying this period predicated on seed weight was not beneficial based on the genotypes used in the study.

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Amy Douglas and Rosanna Freyre

Nolana is a diverse genus native to coastal deserts of Peru and Chile, with great potential for developing new ornamental cultivars. Low germination has been an obstacle to breeding efforts at the University of New Hampshire (UNH). Nolana fruits are comprised of unusual sclerified mericarps, each containing one or more embryos. Germination occurs with opening of funicular plugs on the mericarps. Under normal greenhouse conditions at UNH, germination success in eight Nolana species (N. adansonii, N. aticoana, N. humifusa, N. laxa, N. ivaniana, N. plicata, N. elegans, and N. rupicola) ranged from 0 to 0.05 seedlings/mericarp. We analyzed mericarp morphology, imbibition, and the effect of chemical and environmental germination treatments. SEM showed that soaking treatments create physical changes in mericarp morphology, exposing tracheid tubes in the funicular plugs. Mericarps were soaked in dye to track imbibition, confirming that this occurs through the tracheid tubes, and that additional scarification is not required. The following chemical treatments were unsuccessful in increasing germination: 0.1 N HNO3, 0.2 KNO3, conc. H2SO4, 10 mM or 1 μM ethephon. Gibberellic acid (1000 ppm) effectively increased germination in some species (up to 0.47 seedlings/mericarp). Mericarps stored dry for 2 years had significantly higher germination than fresh mericarps (0.55 seedlings/mericarp). Mericarps of N. aticoana were subjected to after-ripening treatments. Mericarps stored for 7 weeks at 35 °C and 75% RH showed significantly higher germination (0.36 seedlings/mericarp) than mericarps stored dry, or stored moist for 1-6 or 8-12 weeks. Our findings facilitate development of larger hybrid populations, thus increasing the efficiency of Nolana breeding programs.