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Michael W. Smith, Becky S. Cheary, and Becky L. Carroll

Nitrogen was applied between 1996 and 2002 to grafted `Mohawk' pecan (Carya illinoinensis Wangenh. C. Koch.) trees at 75 or 150 kg·ha-1 either as a single application in March or as a split application with 60% applied in March and 40% the first week of June. In 1997 and 2001, a spring freeze damaged developing shoots and buds, resulting in a small, noncommercial crop and the June portion of the N application was withheld. Nitrogen was also applied during the first week in October at 0 or 50 kg·ha-1 N if the crop load before fruit thinning in August was ≥40% fruiting shoots. There were few differences in the percentage of fruiting shoots or cluster size associated with N rate or applying N as a single or split application. Leaf N concentrations were either not affected by treatment or the results were inconsistent. Omitting the June application when a crop failure occurred did not affect the percentage of fruiting shoots the following year. October N application either did not affect or reduced the percentage of fruiting shoots the following year, and had no influence on leaf N concentration in July or October. These results indicate that the only advantage of a split N application is the option of withholding the second portion in the event of a crop failure. However, the added expense associated with splitting the N application versus the risk of crop failure must be assessed for each situation to determine if this is a sound economic practice. These data do not support an October N application when the crop is ≥40% fruiting shoots to reduce irregular bearing.

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Chris Wilson, Joseph Albano, Miguel Mozdzen, and Catherine Riiska

Applications of nitrogen (N) are essential for producing quality ornamental plants. Nitrate-N typically is applied in soluble or controlled-release, commercially available fertilizer products. Nitrate readily dissolves in water due to the salt

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Jeremy R. Pinto, Rhiannon A. Chandler, and R. Kasten Dumroese

., 2002 ). In a leaching study during conifer seedling production, 11% to 19% of applied nitrogen (N) and 16% to 64% of applied phosphorus (P) were recovered in collected leachate ( Juntenen et al., 2002 ). Similarly, 46% to 65% of applied N was recovered

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Michael W. Smith, Bruce W. Wood, and William R. Raun

Adequate nitrogen nutrition is among a cadre of management practices necessary to maintain profitable and productive pecan orchards ( Smith et al., 1985 ; Taylor, 1930 ; Worley, 1974 , 1990 ). Nitrogen is applied in many orchards either as a

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Lois C. Braun, Jeffrey H. Gillman, and Michael P. Russelle

. However, the ecological benefits of growing hazelnuts could be undermined if inappropriate nitrogen (N) fertilization practices are used, leading to N pollution. According to Weinbaum et al. (1992) , orchard crops have among the lowest N uptake efficiency

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Michael P. Croster and John B. Masiunas

conduct the nitrogen analysis, Elizabeth Wahle and Harry Bottenberg for assistance with the statistical analysis, and Asgrow Seeds for donating the pea seed. This research was supported in part by the Illinois Pesticide Impact Assessment Program. The cost

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Silvia Jiménez Becker, Blanca María Plaza, and María Teresa Lao

an electrochemical gradient into plant cells ( Mengel and Kirkby, 2001 ). K + uptake can be affected by nitrogen (N) source. The interactions of N source depend on different factors such as initial potassium concentration in the nutrient solution and

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Travis C. Teuton, John C. Sorochan, Christopher L. Main, Thomas J. Samples, John M. Parham, and Thomas C. Mueller

known for these varieties. Kentucky bluegrass fertility and management are different from tall fescue. Kentucky bluegrass nitrogen (N) fertilization ranges from 19 to 64 kg·ha −1 per month depending on variety ( Beard, 1973 ). Kentucky bluegrass may

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Baomei Yang, Guoliang Li, Shaohai Yang, Zhaohuan He, Changmin Zhou, and Lixian Yao

year and consumes a large amount of nutrients in its growth and fruitage period. Potassium and nitrogen are two mineral nutrition elements required most in normal litchi growth and development ( Yao et al., 2009 ). However, Chinese litchi orchards are

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Carolyn F. Scagel, Guihong Bi, Leslie H. Fuchigami, and Richard P. Regan

. Many growers transplant 1-year-old liners into larger containers during April and May to produce 2-year plants for retail. Controlled-release fertilizers containing high amounts of nitrogen (N) are often applied during transplanting, and plants are