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Francisco Vargas, Miguel Romero, Joan Clavé, Jaume Vergés, Josef Santos, and Ignasi Batlle

-compatible from Apulia, southern Italy, very late blooming from Ukraine, high nut quality from Spain and France, and so on) and selections derived from controlled crosses have enhanced the prospects of almond breeding ( Godini, 1996 ; Grasselly and Crossa

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Limei Yang, Ye Peng, Feng Yang, Donglin Zhang, and Wangxiang Zhang

-flowers (Zhang et al., 2021); less than 5% of 1200 flowering crabapple cultivars are semidouble or double-flowered ( Fiala, 1994 ); and later blooming and double-flowers cultivars are extremely scarce. In China, the controlled breeding of modern crabapples began

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Chris Gottschalk and Steve van Nocker

were similarly broadly distributed along developmental stage ( Fig. 3 ). The M . × domestica cultivar that had undergone the least development was ‘Cox's Orange Pippin’, traditionally considered as late-blooming, whereas the named cultivar that had

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Stephen J. Stringer, Arlen D. Draper, James M. Spiers, Donna A. Marshall, and Barbara J. Smith

noted periodically for both ‘O’Neal’ and ‘Star’, both predisposed to injury to flower buds and developing fruit during late spring frost events at this site (data not shown). Both blooming and ripening periods of ‘Pearl’ were 10 to 12 d after the two

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Thomas Gradziel and Bruce Lampinen

to major pests and diseases. The ‘Kester’ almond originated from a cross between ‘Tardy Nonpareil’ as seed parent and the early-blooming ‘Arbuckle’. ‘Tardy Nonpareil’ is a bud sport of ‘Nonpareil’, which has a bloom date of ≈7 to 10 d later ( Kester

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Susan M. Hawkins, John M. Ruter, and Carol D. Robacker

onto a small paintbrush and used to pollinate the female parent. Reciprocal crosses were made where possible. Because some species bloomed at different times or had brief periods of overlapped blooming, reciprocal crosses could not always be performed

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Shengrui Yao

June to early July from 2012 to 2014. Cultivars tested in each year are listed in Table 1 . The morning bloom types were sampled between 0700 and 0800 hr and the afternoon blooming types were sampled between 1200 and 1300 hr ( Yao et al., 2015

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Xingsui Wang, Yuting Huang, Ji Tian, Jie Zhang, Yanfen Lu, Xiaoxiao Qin, Yujing Hu, and Yuncong Yao

length are longer in M . ‘Chunmei Donghong’ plants than in the mother M . ‘Radiant’ plants ( Table 2 ). Fig. 1. The plant habit at the full blooming stage and at the fruit ripening stage, the rose-red flower clusters at the full blooming stage

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Shengrui Yao and Robert Heyduck

(not the diameter of petals like other fruit species), and an average of 20 fully bloomed flowers for each cultivar was recorded. Flower blooming time (when the sepals start to separate) was observed several times from June to July during 2012–14. Leaf

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Xun Chen, Nai-xin Liu, Li-juan Fan, Yu Du, and Ling Wang

blooming (lateral view). Fig. 2. Single flower of I. sanguinea and ‘Zi Meiren’ in blooming (vertical view). Fig. 3. Anatomical structure of I. sanguinea and ‘Zi Meiren’, indicating outer perianths, inner perianths, style arms, bracts, filaments, anthers