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Genhua Niu, Minzi Wang, Denise Rodriguez, and Donglin Zhang

Soil salinity is a common problem encountered in arid and semiarid regions and is generally caused by insufficient drainage, low rainfall, and inappropriate irrigation management, although irrigation water is seldom saline ( Boland, 2008

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James A. Zwack, Anthony S. Aiello, William R. Graves, and Alden M. Townsend

60 ORAL SESSION 10 (Abstr. 064–071) Water Stress/Water Utilization–Woody Plants

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Russell Pressey

Chinese water chestnuts retain crispness during heating much better than most vegetables. To help explain this unusual property of water chestnuts, a study was conducted to determine their cell wall composition and to assay some of the enzymes that may be involved in hydrolysis of cell walls and starch. Water chestnuts were found to contain high levels of β-1,3-glucanase and β-glucosidase but low cellulase. A number of other enzymes were detected including invertase, α- and β-galactosidases and α-mannosidase. A rather high level of amylase is present in water chestnuts and most of the activity appears to be due to β-amylase. Water chestnuts contain low pectinesterase but a moderate amount of polygalacturonase which was purified and characterized. It is an exoenzyme that does not require Ca2+ for activity in contrast to most other exopolygalacturonases. An unusual property of the water chestnut polygalacturonase is its stability to heat, with retention of most of its activity after heating at 80°C for 5 min. The cell walls of water chestnuts contain low pectin which is solubilized slowly by pectic enzymes.

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Malik G. Al-Ajlouni, Dawn M. VanLeeuwen, and Rolston St. Hilaire

In desert communities, residents aspire to balance their preferred landscape with the need for water conservation ( Spinti et al., 2004 ). This balance is a challenge for homeowners who desire to select their favorite landscape, but do not know the

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Vahid Rahimi Eichi, Stephen D. Tyerman, and Michelle G. Wirthensohn

Improving WUE in perennial crops like fruit trees may decrease water use without reducing yield. This can be particularly important for water-limited areas in which crop productivity is dependent on water availability ( Bassett et al., 2011 ; Naor

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Tessa M. Mills, M. Hossein Behboudian, and Brent E. Clothier

132 ORAL SESSION 41 (Abstr. 306–313) Water Stress–Utilization/Cross-commodity

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Jeb S. Fields, James S. Owen Jr., James E. Altland, Marc W. van Iersel, and Brian E. Jackson

practice of excess water application to eliminate any risk of under-watering ( Mathers et al., 2005 ). Moreover, this excess water application leads to inefficient use of water resources and subsequent leaching or runoff of applied agrichemicals ( Million

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Tej P. Acharya, Gregory E. Welbaum, and Ramón A. Arancibia

semitransparent porous fabrics that allow airflow and ventilation, hence helping avoid condensation that may damage the foliage in contact with water ( Arancibia, 2018 ). Low tunnels covered with spunbonded fabric increase vegetative growth and yield by increasing

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Michelle Hadawi-Broeske and Helen C. Harrison

76 POSTER SESSION 9 Water Stress, Water Utilization, & Water Management/Cross-Commodity

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Richard J. McAvoy, Bernard B. Bible, and Xiusheng Yang

99 POSTER SESSION 15 (Abstr. 685-697) Water Stress and Utilization