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Mohamad-Hossein Sheikh-Mohamadi, Nematollah Etemadi, and Mostafa Arab

). Different types of turfgrass have various mechanisms for their adaptation to heat and cold stress, including changes in physiological parameters and antioxidant defense systems ( Yu et al., 2012 ). Plants have evolved very efficient antioxidant defense

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Lixin Xu, Mili Zhang, Xunzhong Zhang, and Lie-Bao Han

Zoysiagrass ( Zoysia spp.) is a common warm-season turfgrass well adapted in use of lawns and golf courses in many regions because of its excellent heat tolerance, density, low pesticide requirements, and minimal maintenance inputs ( Patton et al

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James N. McCrimmon

Limited information is available concerning the mineral nutrient content of different turfgrass species. There is a need to develop sufficiency ranges for turfgrasses under various management programs. The nutrient concentration of a turfgrass provides an indication of the nutrient status and quality of the turf. A study was conducted to assess the mineral nutrient composition of selected turfgrass species and cultivars. Plant tissue samples of the following turfgrasses were collected: creeping bentgrass, Agrostis palustris Huds. `Penncross'; bermudagrass, Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. `NuMex Sahara', `Santa Ana', `Texturf 10', and Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. × Cynodon transvaalensis Burtt-Davy `Tifgreen', `Tifway'; perennial ryegrass, Lolium perenne L. `Medalist × Blend'; St. Augustinegrass Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walt.) Kuntze `Seville'; and zoysiagrass, Zoysia japonica Steud. `El Toro' and Zoysia japonica × Zoysia tenuifolia Willd. ex Trin. `Emerald'. Three samples of each cultivar were collected, washed with deionized water for 30 s, and dried in a forced-air oven at 70°C for 72 hr. Plant samples were analyzed for both macronutrient and micronutrient concentration. For the bermudagrass cultivars, the concentrations of potassium (K) and magnesium (Mg) were less than 20.0 g·kg-1 and 2.0 g·kg–1, respectively, and less than known sufficiency levels. `Tifway' and `Texturf 10' had lower nitrogen (N) concentrations than other bermudagrasses. `Penncross' and `Medalist X' had the highest N concentrations. Zoysiagrass had low concentrations of N, phosphorus (P), calcium (Ca), K, and Mg. The concentration of copper (Cu) was low for zoysiagrass and three bermudagrass cultivars (`Texturf 10', `Tifgreen', and `Tifway'). There were differences among the turfgrasses for manganese (Mn) and zinc (Zn) concentrations.

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Qing Shen, Hua Bian, Hai-yan Wei, Li Liao, Zhi-yong Wang, Xiao-yan Luo, Xi-peng Ding, Zhenbang Chen, and Paul Raymer

habitats with high salinity. It has excellent resistance to abiotic stresses, such as salinity, drought, and low temperature ( Jia et al., 2015a ; Shahba et al., 2014 ; Wu et al., 2018 ; Ye et al., 2010 ). As turfgrass, P. vaginatum has been widely

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Geungjoo Lee, Robert N. Carrow, and Ronny R. Duncan

thesis submitted by G.J. Lee. Funding from the U.S. Golf Association and Georgia Turfgrass Foundation Trust is gratefully acknowledged.

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Mark R. LeBlanc and James N. McCrimmon

Establishing and maintaining turfgrass in the shade is one of the most challenging problems facing turfgrass managers and home owners. A greenhouse study was initiated to determine the shade tolerance of centipedegrass [Eremochloa ophiuroides (Munro.) Hack.], carpetgrass [Axonopus affinis Chase], and selected St. Augustinegrass [Stenotaphrum secundatum (Walt.) Kuntze] cultivars (`Floratam', `FX-10', `Seville', and `TR 6-10'). Plants were grown under artificial shade (85% polypropylene shade cloth) and full sun. Actual percent shade (%shade={PAR under shade/PAR under sun}*100) was determined by measuring photosynthetically active radiation (PAR) under shade cloth and full sun adjacent to the shade structure using a quantum sensor. Pots were arranged in a completely randomized block design with four replications. All turfgrasses, except `TR 6-10', had a significant reduction in total dry weight in the shade compared to those in the sun. `TR 6-10' had the highest root, leaf, and total dry weight in the shade. `FX-10' had the lowest root, leaf, and total dry weight in the shade. Plants grown under the shade treatment compared to those in the sun resulted in an average decrease in stolon number of 13 and in total stolon length of 170 cm. In the shade, `Floratam' and `Seville' had the longest stolon internode lengths, while `Floratam' had the longest in the sun. There were significant differences for leaf length between the shade and sun treatments, except for carpetgrass and `FX-10'. `Floratam' and `FX-10' had differences in leaf width between the sun and shade.

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Yuguang Zhao, George C.J. Fernandez, Daniel C. Bowman, and Robert S. Nowak

Cumulative evapotranspiration (ETcum) patterns of 10 commercially available cool-season turfgrass species and cultivars were evaluated under progressive water stress in the semi-field conditions using a gravimetric mass balance method in three studies. At the end of water stress, the cultivars were visually scored for green appearance on a 0 (no green) to 10 (100% green) scale. A Gompertz nonlinear model gave a best fit to ETcum vs. days adjusted for pan evaporation variation. Two of the ETcum attributes (ti, the time during which the rate change in ET is zero, and ETmax, the maximum ET rate) estimated from the Gompertz model appeared to reflect efficient water-use attributes in the turfgrass. Among the physiological screening techniques studied, electrolyte leakage, relative water content, and the difference between canopy and air temperature appeared to separate cultivars by drought resistance and water use efficiency (WUE). These physiological attributes were also relatively easy to measure and had high correlations with color score and WUE. Biplot display is a graphical technique in which the interrelationships between the cultivars and water-use attributes can be displayed together. Based on ti, ETmax, color score, and physiological attributes, `Wabash' and `Bristol' Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis L.), `Aurora' hard fescue (Festuca ovina var. duriuscula L. Koch.), and `FRT-30149' fine fescue (F. rubra L.) were identified as cultivars with higher WUE.

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Te-Ming Tseng, Swati Shrestha, James D. McCurdy, Erin Wilson, and Gourav Sharma

Annual bluegrass ( Poa annua ) is considered a most problematic annual winter weed in managed turfgrass, such as golf courses ( Cross et al., 2013 ). This weed has traditionally been controlled by herbicides; however, populations that are resistant

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Roch Gaussoin, Jeff Nus, and Larry Leuthold

Golf ball roll is measured with a United States Golf Association (USGA) Stimpmeter. Three Stimpmeters were fabricated identically to the USGA Stimpmeter, except for the location of the ball release notch. The modified Stimpmeters had ball release notches located at 57, 38, and 19 cm, rather than at 76 cm from the beveled end. The modified Stimpmeters were tested on a creeping bentgrass green located at Mead, Neb., at three mowing heights (4.8, 4.0, and 3.2 mm). The Stimpmeters were effective in measuring golf ball roll distance and provided reasonable and consistent estimates of friction. Modified Stimpmeters are relatively inexpensive to construct and can be used on small turfgrass research plots.

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Christopher D. Ryan, J. Bryan Unruh, Kevin E. Kenworthy, Alexa J. Lamm, John E. Erickson, and Laurie E. Trenholm

group or individual who acts as a source of information or authority regarding landscape practices ( Foucault, 1978 ). Homeowner’s associations (HOAs) and building codes can dictate percentages of turfgrass coverage, forcing homeowners to use the