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Lisa W. DeVetter, Huan Zhang, Shuresh Ghimire, Sean Watkinson, and Carol A. Miles

materials are manufactured from feedstocks derived from fossil fuels plus natural materials (e.g., starch polysaccharides and cellulose, up to 20% of the BDM) ( Jamshidian et al., 2010 ; Miles et al., 2017 ). BDMs are engineered to completely biodegrade

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Ockert P.J. Stander, Graham H. Barry, and Paul J.R. Cronjé

pattern across three consecutive harvests [an alternate bearing index ( I ) higher than 0.15 ( Monselise and Goldschmidt, 1982 )]. The alternate bearing index of each orchard was calculated using the following formula ( Gur et al., 1969 ): where n

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Kyle E. Bair, Joan R. Davenport, and Robert G. Stevens

that NO 3 -N is a better index of soil N availability. Low PRS NH 4 -N values do, however, suggest a rapid nitrification is taking place. PRS NO 3 -N data ( Table 2 ) for RES and COM vineyards show that during the PB period (only measured in 2004

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Hiroshi Iwanami, Shigeki Moriya, Nobuhiro Kotoda, Sae Takahashi, and Kazuyuki Abe

and Mackay, 1996 ). The estimation of the degree of resemblance for fruit softening after harvest, however, has received little attention in apple breeding because there is no effective phenotypic value or index for fruit softening upon which to

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Mark W. Farnham and Michael A. Grusak

decreased significantly after the 1960s coincident with the introduction of semidwarf, high-yielding cultivars. With Zn, Cu, and Mg, Fan et al. (2008) observed that both grain yield and the harvest index were highly significant variables explaining

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Stephen R. Delwiche, Weena Mekwatanakarn, and Chien Y. Wang

starch ( Castrillo et al., 1992 ). Therefore, sucrose concentration, and perhaps that of one or more of the reducing sugars, could be used, along with SSC, as an indicator of ripeness. However, determination of these constituents requires destructive

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Lina Fu, Lijun Chai, Dekuan Ding, Zhiyong Pan, and Shu’ang Peng

abundant starch granules, whereas chloroplasts from ‘Miyagawa Wase’/trifoliate orange leaves had a large number of plastoglobules ( Fig. 2E and 2F ). Within the ‘Miyagawa Wase’/trifoliate orange samples, the grana thylakoids were significantly decreased in

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Steven McArtney, Duane Greene, Terence Robinson, and James Wargo

determined by a starch pattern index between 5.0 and 6.0 on the Cornell Starch Chart ( Blanpied and Silsby, 1992 ). Mean fruit weight, yield per tree, and total yield in bushels/acre (1 bushel = 42 lb) were calculated from this data. A random sample of 10

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Rolland Agaba, Phinehas Tukamuhabwa, Patrick Rubaihayo, Silver Tumwegamire, Andrew Ssenyonjo, Robert O.M. Mwanga, Jean Ndirigwe, and Wolfgang J. Grüneberg

index (HI)] and nutritional quality traits [i.e., SRDM, starch (STA), protein (PRO), Fe, Zn, potassium (K), and phosphorus (P)] among 26 yam bean accessions available in Uganda. Materials and Methods Experimental sites and germplasm. Field experiments

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Lisa Tang, Shweta Chhajed, and Tripti Vashisth

refractometer (Pocket PAL-BX1 ACID1; Atago USA, Bellevue, WA). The maturity index is expressed as the ratio of TSS to TA. Healthy and aborted seeds ( Rosales and Burns, 2011 ) and total seeds (the sum of healthy and aborted seeds) of each fruit were also