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Pedro Novillo, Alejandra Salvador, Pilar Navarro, and Cristina Besada

., 2003 ). The ROS metabolism is controlled by an array of interrelated enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and peroxidase (POD), which act concomitantly with nonenzymatic antioxidants; O 2 − is

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Jia Li, Liyun Liu, Huanqi Zhou, and Meng Li

mechanisms in plant cells ( Sairam et al., 2011 ). A number of oxidoreductases, such as SOD, POD, and CAT, are involved in this process. The balance between ROS production and antioxidant enzyme activity determines whether oxidative signaling and damage occur

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Liyuan Huang, Jun Yuan, Hui Wang, Xiaofeng Tan, and Genhua Niu

radical (O 2 − ) ( Bartels and Sunkar, 2005 ), which may break the balance between generation and scavenging of the ROS. To detoxify Al-induced ROS, plants employ enzymatic antioxidants, such as POD, SOD, and CAT ( Boscolo et al., 2003 ; Inostroza

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Ji-Lian Zheng, Lan-Ying Hu, Kang-Di Hu, Jun Wu, Feng Yang, and Hua Zhang

, and MDA were determined according to the methods described by Hu et al. (2013) and Zhang et al. (2011) with minor modifications. Of the extract obtained from the method for SOD extraction, 0.5 mL was mixed with 0.5 mL of 50 mmol·L −1 potassium

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Mohamad Hossein Sheikh Mohamadi, Nematollah Etemadi, Ali Nikbakht, and Mohammad Pessarakli

, MDA content, SSC content, CAT (EC 1.111.1.6) activity, SOD (EC 1.15.1.1) activity, APX (EC 1.11.1.11) activity, and POD (EC 1.111.1.7) activity. Turf quality. The turf quality was visually rated on a scale of 1 to 9 (National Turfgrass Evaluation

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Zhou Li, Yan Peng, and Bingru Huang

stress. Materials and Methods Plant material and treatment. Creeping bentgrass (‘Penncross’) sod plugs (5 cm diameter) were collected from Rutgers University Horticultural Farm II (North Brunswick, NJ) and planted in plastic containers (40 cm length, 30

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Erick G. Begitschke, James D. McCurdy, Te-Ming Tseng, T. Casey Barickman, Barry R. Stewart, Christian M. Baldwin, Michael P. Richard, and Maria Tomaso-Peterson

Bermudagrass ( Cynodon spp.) is commonly produced as sod throughout the southern United States and other temperate or transition climate zones throughout the world, with most of the growers producing vegetatively propagated hybrid bermudagrass [ C

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Xinhua Zhang, Fujun Li, Nana Ji, Shujun Shao, Dongyang Wang, Ling Li, and Fansheng Cheng

sodium phosphate buffer (pH 7.0). The homogenate was centrifuged at 10,000 g n for 15 min at 4 °C. The supernatants were used for the enzyme assays. SOD activity was assayed according to Rao et al. (1996) . SOD estimation was based on its ability to

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M. Laganière, P. Lecomte, and Y. Desjardins

In Quebec, commercial sod is produced on >3000 ha. Generally, ≈20 months are required to produce market-ready sod. When conditions are suitable, harvest of marketable sod is possible within a year. However, intensive management may result in soil compaction and a reduction of the organic matter content. Considering the increasing amount of amendment available, sod production fields could be interesting for their disposal. In this study, visual quality and sod root growth was examined following an application of an organic amendment at 50, 100, and 150 t·ha–1, incorporated to depth of 6 or 20 cm. Plots established on a sandy soil receiving organic amendments had higher visual quality ratings. Bulk density was significantly reduced following compost or paper sludge application to a heavy soil. The shearing strength required to tear sod amended with compost was significantly higher in comparison with control and paper sludge treatments.

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Clíssia Barboza da Silva, Julio Marcos-Filho, Pablo Jourdan, and Mark A. Bennett

at constant current of 20 mA per gel at 4 °C. The staining protocols used for specific enzymes were as described: SOD ( Beauchamp and Fridovich, 1971 ), CAT ( Woodbury et al., 1971 ), and POX ( Hamill and Brewbaker, 1969 ). Experimental design and