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Richard D. Richins, Laura Hernandez, Barry Dungan, Shane Hambly, F. Omar Holguin, and Mary A. O'Connell

The red-, orange-, and yellow-pigmented fruit in Capsicum spp. is the result of accumulation of carotenoids, both carotenes and xanthophylls, in the pericarp ( Wall et al., 2001 ). These pigments have beneficial nutritional value as precursors

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Chae Shin Lim, Seong Mo Kang, Jeoung Lai Cho, and Kenneth C. Gross

mandarin. However, little information is available on the relationship between ripening stage and chilling sensitivity of pepper fruit. Nor have the chilling symptoms and related enzymes been compared between chilling-sensitive and -tolerant hot pepper at

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Duane W. Greene

), and this is the approximate time initial set and fruit size was taken on these trees. Therefore, it is not surprising to find that ProCa had little or no effect at this time. Cell division occurs slowly for a period of time after pollination, and then

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Ksenija Gasic, John E. Preece, and David Karp

width ∼0.91 m; leaves deeply lobed, dark green; propagation by tissue culture preferred; highly productive; cold hardy USDA Zone 7. Little Ruby. Compact, cold hardy plant with medium size, common-type, sweet red fruit, and strawberry-colored pulp

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Sarah M. Bharath, Christian Cilas, and Pathmanathan Umaharan

), whereas fruit with a pebbled epidermis revealed lignified cells and increased suberin levels immediately at the pebbled zones (red-stained regions). Notably, larger pebbled areas displayed considerable cell wall lignification and suberized zones ( Fig. 4B

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Lisa Tang, Sukhdeep Singh, and Tripti Vashisth

-end rot), whereas a dropped fruit with stem-end rot, which is possibly because of the secondary infection of another pathogen, is indicated by the red square. A close-up of the dropped fruit during the physiological abscission associated with HLB is

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Richard H. Zimmerman and George L. Steffens

Tissue-culture (TC)-propagated `Gala' and Triple Red `Delicious' apple trees grown at three planting densities were not treated (CON) or treated with plant growth regulators (PGRs) starting the third or fourth season to control tree size and maximize fruiting. `Gala' and `Delicious' trees budded on M.7a rootstock (BUD) were also included as controls. `Gala' trees were larger than `Delicious' after the first three growing seasons but `Delicious' were larger than `Gala' at the end of 9 years. BUD trees were larger than CON trees the first few seasons hut final trunk cross-sectional area (TCSA) of CON trees averaged 43% greater than BUD trees. Paclobutrazol and uniconazole treatments more readily controlled the growth of `Gala' than `Delicious' and uniconazole was more effective than paclobutrazol in controlling tree size. Daminozide + ethephon sprays (D+E-S) did not influence tree size. Tree size of both cultivars was inversely related to planting density and both triazole PGRs were more effective in controlling tree size as planting density increased. The trees had fewer flowers as planting density increased and BUD trees generally had more Bowers than CON. Triazole PGRs had little effect on the flowering pattern of `Gala' trees but tended to stimulate flowering of young `Delicious' TC trees, although the increases were not sustained. The D+E-S treatment increased flowering of `Gala' trees the last 3 years of the experiment and consistently increased flowering of `Delicious' TC trees. Fruit yields were higher for young `Gala' compared to `Delicious' trees and the final cumulative yield per tree for `Gala' was also greater. Yield per tree decreased as tree density increased and was the same for BUD and CON trees. D+E-S increased cumulative per tree yield of `Delicious' but not of `Gala'. Cumulative yields per tree for triazole-treated TC trees were the same as, or significantly lower than, CON trees. Increasing tree density did not increase yield/ha. Yield efficiency of `Gala' trees was increased by three, and of `Delicious' trees by one, of the triazole treatments, because they reduced TCSA proportionally more than they reduced per tree yield. There was less bienniality with `Gala' than `Delicious' and no difference between BUD and CON trees. Bienniality indices were higher for paclobutrazol-treated `Gala' trees compared with CON `Gala' but only uniconazole applied as a trunk paint increased the bienniality index of `Delicious' trees. Chemical names used: succinic acid-2,2-dimethyl hydrazide (daminozide), (2-chloroethyl) phosphonic acid (ethephon), (2RS,3RS)-1-(4-chlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-2-(1,2,4-triazol-1-yl)pentan-3-01 (paclobutrazol), (E)-(l-chlorophenyl)-4,4-dimethyl-2-(I,2,4-triazol-l-yl)-1-penten-3-ol (uniconazole).

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Andrés Olivos, Scott Johnson, Qin Xiaoqiong, and Carlos H. Crisosto

production ( Johnson and Uriu, 1989 ), but little is known about the role of nutrition in cold storage disorders, CI expression in fresh cut fruit, and fruit consumption by consumers. Fruit nutrition research has mainly focused on optimizing tree growth and

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Jianguo Li, Hong Zhu, and Rongcai Yuan

facilitate seed dispersal ( Addicott, 1982 ). Many apple cultivars such as Red Delicious and Golden Delicious have a serious preharvest fruit abscission problem, which occurs before fruit develop optimum color, maturity, or size ( Schupp and Greene, 2004

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Don C. Elfving, Stephen R. Drake, A. Nathan Reed, and Dwayne B. Visser

resulting from AVG or either of the 1-MCP treatments on the first harvest date ( Table 1 ). The minor differences in fruit skin color in this very dark red cultivar were not horticulturally significant. Fruit were at an appropriate stage for long-term CA