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Gilles Galopin, Sandrine Codarin, Jean-Daniel Viemont, and Philippe Morel

. Fertile florets are differentiated as of the second branching order in terminal position. Sterile florets are differentiated later and are located on the secondary branchings of the dichasium. Inflorescence development takes place over two growing

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Ellen Thompson, Bernadine C. Strik, John R. Clark, and Chad E. Finn

primocanes and winter pruning of floricanes. Tipping the upper portion of the primocane in early summer removes apical dominance and encourages branching. Similarly, soft-tipping (removing the upper 2 to 5 cm) primocane-fruiting types in early summer may be a

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Benjamin D. Toft, Mobashwer M. Alam, John D. Wilkie, and Bruce L. Topp

Lespinasse, 2001 ; Sherif, 2013 ), and increased branching can improve early flowering of mango due to availability of terminal shoots ( Oosthuyse and Jacobs, 1995 ), although similar relationships are unclear for macadamia. Therefore, it is necessary to

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Diana R. Cochran and Amy Fulcher

phytotoxicity ( Meijón et al., 2009 ) and be perceived as digressing from sustainable production ( Lütken et al., 2012 ). Plant growth regulators have several modes of action, including branch inducing, chemical pinching (chemicals that suppress apical dominance

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Bernadine C. Strik, John R. Clark, Chad E. Finn, and Gil Buller

this new crop. Soft-tipping the primocane at 1 m induced branching and increased flower and fruit number and yield threefold without affecting fruiting season in Oregon ( Strik et al., 2008 ). A double tip, where branches are further shortened, has been

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Peter J. Zale, Daniel K. Struve, Pablo Jourdan, and David M. Francis

focused on the creation of interspecific hybrids with the goal of improved flower quality, flower color, or flowering period. There have been no reports of studies on other morphological characteristics of M. virginiana such as height, branching pattern

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Takashi Ikeda, Keisuke Yamazaki, Hiroshi Kumakura, and Hiroshi Hamamoto

in late summer in 2003 and 2005 accelerated fruit growth on the primary axillary branch, which differentiates after transplanting. Materials and Methods High-bench culture with medium cooling. The high-bench culture system was

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Jer-Chia Chang and Tzong-Shyan Lin

initial fruit set increased with increasing leaf area. By girdling and removing different numbers of fruit and leaves from branches, Roe et al. (1997) reported that developing fruit of ‘Tai So’ depended primarily on current CO 2 assimilation from leaves

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Diana R. Cochran, Amy Fulcher, and Guihong Bi

production to improve overall shape and reduce plant size, encourage branching, and influence flower development, all of which have been reported by retail consumers as important characteristics of plant quality ( Glasgow, 1999 ). However, hand pinching or

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Ulrik Bräuner Nielsen and Gary A. Chastagner

Kathy Riley and Gerner Frederiksen during harvest and data collection is gratefully acknowledged. Special thanks to Langesø Estate for hosting the provenance trial and for allowing harvesting of branch samples.