consisted of 20 trees of the same cultivar. For each tree, two fully flowering racemes located in similar positions (height, aspect, branch location) but on separate branches, were marked with tape. Chosen racemes were 120 to 200 cm above ground and
Brad G. Howlett, Samantha F.J. Read, Maryam Alavi, Brian T. Cutting, Warrick R. Nelson, Robert M. Goodwin, Sarah Cross, Trevor G. Thorp, and David E. Pattemore
Jung M. Lee and N. E. Looney
Regrowth of decapitated seedlings of apple (Malus domestica Borkh.) of a compact phenotype revealed stronger apical dominance and narrower branching angle than normal seedlings. Normal and compact seedlings were also found to differ in their phyllotaxy at lower nodes. Spraying with 2,3,5-triiodobenzoic acid (TIBA) before and/or after decapitation increased apparent apical dominance in compact seedlings; reduced shoot thickness in normal seedlings; and reduced shoot length and increased branching angle of both phenotypes. Gibberellic acid (GA3) increased shoot length and reversed the TIBA effect on branch angle in the compact seedlings. These differing growth regulator effects are thought to relate to differences in endogenous growth substance levels. Shoot tips of normal seedlings were higher in abscisic acid (ABA) but the dwarf pea bioassay indicated the presence of another acidic inhibitor present only in the compact seedlings. Normal seedlings exhibited higher levels of gibberellin-like growth promoters.
One-year-old trees of three apple selections [NY73334-35 (A), NY75414-1 (B), and NY75413-30 (C)] from the Geneva Breeding Program were transplanted into an orchard. While at the nursery, the trees were treated with Promalin and Accel, by themselves or in combination, to promote lateral branch formation (feathering). After trees were transplanted, no growth regulators were applied to the trees. One year after transplanting, treated trees of B and C had produced more feathers than the controls. This was particularly pronounced with the very difficult-to-branch selection C. No differences between chemical treatments were found. Regardless of selection, each chemical treatment significantly influenced increase in total extension growth compared to the control and contributed to rapid build up of tree structure. There were no differences between the treatments in tree height, tree caliper, or the number of spurs.
Max W. Williams and H. D. Billingsley
Cytokinins and gibberellins applied to dormant buds on young apple trees significantly increased the number of growing buds and the angle between the main trunk and the new shoot. Total shoot growth on treated trees was nearly double that of control trees. Nursery trees treated with growth regulators several weeks before planting produced branches with wide crotch angles from which good permanent primary scaffold limbs could be selected.
K.S. Kleeberger and B.C. Moser
A number of deciduous woody ornamental plants experience seasonal changes in stem pigmentation. The resulting coloration yields plants desirable for use as cut branches in the florist trade. The dynamics of color change are particularly important in identifying harvest periods based on optimum color. The characterization of this process has been investigated for Cornus (Cornus baileyi, Cornus sericea `Cardinal', Cornus sericea `Flaviramea', Cornus alba `Bud's Yellow') and Salix (Salix matsudana `Tortosa', Salix `Golden Curls', Salix `Scarlet Curls') cultivars. Seasonal color changes are presented in relation to date. These data were compared to chlorophyll and anthocyanin levels to further characterize pigmentation change. Because size and round stem shape are not conducive to traditional tristimulus color measurement techniques, L*a*b* measurements were obtained from images imported via computer scanner as CIELAB images. L*a*b* values then were used to determine hue angle and chromaticity for each sample date. Postharvest storage duration and conditions are evaluated with regard to moisture content and color retention in cut branches.
Jocelyne Kervella, Loïc Pagès, and Michel Génard
Genotypic variations in the length-diameter relationship of branches among peach and nectarine [Prunus persica (L.) Batsch.] cultivars were investigated. The length and basal diameter of all undamaged first-order shoots from 1-year-old trees of 14 cultivars and one accession were measured. Statistical analysis of the allometric relationship between length and basal diameter of shoots provided evidence of genotypic differences for that relationship, although the diameter of very short shoots did not differ between genotypes. A gradient existed from `Armking' with thin shoots (9 mm in diameter for 85.5-cm-long shoots) to `Flavorcrest' with thick shoots (16.4 mm in diameter for 85.5-cm-long shoots). Early selection for shoot thickness should be possible in breeding programs. The likely consequences of observed shoot thickness variations on the mechanical and hydraulic properties of shoots are discussed.
W. E. Healy, R. D. Heins, and H. F. Wilkins
Alternanthra amoena Voss, Coleus × hybridus Voss., Hedra helix L., Pelargonium × hortorum Bailey, Peperomia obtusifolia L.,Pilea cadierei Gagnep. & Guillaum, Pilea ‘Moon Valley’ and Pilea involucrata ‘Panamegia’ Sims were grown under normal photoperiods (ND), short photoperiods (SD) and several night lighting regimes using red, incandescent, or far red light. Lateral branching and cutting production was promoted on P. ‘Moon Valley’ under SD while flowering was inhibited. P. ‘Moon Valley’ and P. involucrata flowered under long days. The remaining plant species produced more cuttings under ND or the night lighting treatments when compared to SD. Cycling P. ‘Moon Valley’ and P. involucrata between SD and day continuation red lighting treatments every 20 days significantly increased cutting production on plants compared to plants grown continuously under SD or ND.
Muntubani D.S. Nzima, George C. Martin, and Chic Nishijima
The objective of this investigation was to determine the dynamics of carbohydrate use as revealed by soluble sugar and starch concentration in leaves, inflorescence buds, rachises, nuts, current and 1-year-old wood, and primary and tertiary scaffold branches and roots (≤10 mm in diameter) of alternate-bearing `Kerman' pistachio (Pistachia vera L.) trees that were in their natural bearing cycles. Two hypotheses were tested. First, carbohydrate concentration is greater early in the growing season in organs examined from heavily cropping (“on”) than light cropping (“off”) trees. This hypothesis was affirmed as judged by soluble sugar and starch concentration in leaves, inflorescence buds, rachises, nuts, current and 1-year-old wood, and primary and tertiary branches and roots of “on” compared to “off” trees. Second, carbohydrate concentration remains high in “on” tree organs as the first wave of inflorescence bud and nut abscission occurs early in the growing season. This hypothesis was also affirmed. In fact, soluble sugars and starch remained high in “on” trees through full bloom FB + 60 days (FB + 60) as inflorescence bud and nut abscission occurred. In the persisting “on” tree inflorescence buds, sharp decreases in soluble sugars and starch were evident by the final sample date when “off” tree inflorescence buds contained a 13 times greater concentration of soluble sugars and starch than “on” tree buds. At that time, “off” tree inflorescence buds contained 50% more dry mass than “on” tree inflorescence buds. After FB + 60, “on” tree soluble sugars and starch declined in all organs as nut growth occurred. During the same time period, organs of “off” trees began to accumulate greater concentrations of soluble sugars and starch and exceeded concentrations measured in organs of “on” trees.
Alvan Gaus and Matthew Rogoyski
The main objective of this research was to compare the growth responses of l-year-old, vertical, apple shoots to bending with a simple hand-tool (HT) or bending with the commercially available Branch Bender® (BB). Single, vigorous, vertical shoots of `Red Chief Delicious (RCD), `Valnur' Jonathan (VJ), and Granny Smith were either bent with the BB or were bent by spirally wrapping the shoot around a 2.5 cm diameter plastic-rod, HT 2 times. Each variety had nine single-tree blocks with a control, BB, and HT as treatments. Measurements were taken on the number of clusters formed, length of subsequent terminal growth, number of shoots and spurs formed, and shoot cross-sectional area. No differences were found in RCD between the BB and the HT on all parameters; however, terminal growth was less with the BB than the control. With VJ, first year shoot cross-sectional area for the BB was less than for the HT. Cluster formation on both 1 and 2-year-old wood was greater with the BB than the control but not with the HT. No differences were found with Granny Smith.
Brent L. Black
Balancing vegetative growth with fruiting is a primary concern in strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa Duch.) production. Where nursery plant selection and preconditioning are inadequate for runner control, additional approaches are needed. The gibberellin biosynthesis inhibitor prohexadione-Ca (commercial formulation Apogee) was tested over two seasons for suppressing fall runners of `Chandler' plug plants in a cold-climate annual hill production system. Prohexadione-Ca was applied as a foliar spray at active ingredient concentrations ranging from 60 to 480 mg·L-1, either as a single application 1 week after planting, or repeated at 3-week intervals. The lowest rate resulted in inadequate runner control, with some runners producing malformed daughter plants. Higher rates resulted in 57% to 93% reductions in fall runner numbers, with a concomitant increase in fall branch crown formation. There were no effects of the prohexadione-Ca treatments on plant morphology the following spring, and no adverse effects on fruit characteristics or yield. Chemical names used: prohexadione-calcium, calcium 3-oxido-4-propionyl-5-oxo-3-cyclohexene-carboxylate.