S. H. Wittwer
Agricultural research, technology, and development is at a crossroads in this nation. The chart ahead is not clear. If food is important, it’s not reflected by current investments in research. Food has been taken for granted. The present affluence of our nation in the adequacy, safety, and variety of its food supply exceeds that of any known people that have ever inhabited the earth.
The British and Scotish public extension programs are currently “privatized,” after a decade-long process aimed at this objective. While the British system is owned by a private corporation, the Scotish one is still operated by a public entity. In both situations, information is not freely dispensed, but sold through a subscription process. For a fee, a basic level of service, including newsletters, production/marketing/farm management bulletins, and a limited amount of telephone time with disciplinary/commodity experts, is provided. For an additional fee, farm visits or problem diagnostic services can be secured. The government is one of the largest customers in both systems, funding major “public good” natural resource projects, rural reviatization projects, and agricultural sector job re-training programs. This has significantly impacted the way that information is obtained and delivered to primary producers. These issues, and their implications, will be discussed in this presentation.
Kevin Crosby, Daniel Leskovar, John Jifon, and Kilsun Yoo
The Texas Agricultural Experiment Station/Texas A&M University announces the release of two new open-pollinated cultivars of long chile. The first, `TAM Ben Villalon,'(TBV) is a long green chile/Anaheim type, while the second, `TAM Valley Hot,' (TVH) is a large cayenne type. Both cultivars have complex pedigrees involving TAES potyvirus resistant germplasm developed by Ben Villalon. Consequently, they exhibit resistance to some strains of tobacco etch virus when mechanically inoculated. In addition, TBV exhibits resistance to several strains of pepper mottle virus. These new cultivars out-yielded their comparable commercial cultivars, `Sonora,' and `Mesilla', when grown with drip irrigation at Weslaco and Uvalde, Texas. TBV yielded 16,632 kg/ha of green pods, compared to 14,228 kg/ha for `Sonora.' Both cultivars had similar capsaicin concentrations of 30–40 ppm on a fresh-weight basis. TBV pods are significantly heavier than those of `Sonora' due to thicker flesh. It should be useful for the green chile processing and fresh market industries. TBV may also be dried at the red stage to produce chile powder, which is very similar in quality to that of `NM 6-4.' TVH pods are not significantly different from `Mesilla' for size or weight, but contain significantly more capsaicin (670 vs. 320 ppm) when grown at Weslaco. TVH should be well-suited to the cayenne mash industry for hot sauce production due to its high heat level. Both cultivars will be distributed through commercial seed companies after receiving approval for Plant Variety Protection Patents.
Rodomiro Ortiz, Piers D. Austin, and Dirk Vuylsteke
1 Former Officer-in-Charge of the High Rainfall Station. Current address: Dept. of Agricultural Sciences, Royal Veterinary and Agricultural Univ., 40 Thorvaldsensvej, DK 1871 Frederiksberg C, Copenhagen, Denmark. 2 Station Manager of the High
Leo R. LaSota and Sheryl D. Soares
The demands placed by institutions, departments, courses, and instructors on undergraduate horticulture majors have been justified as necessary to prepare students for careers in horticulture. This unanimity of general purpose is not paralleled by agreement on the specific means to achieve educational goals. Ballinger (2) questioned the adequacy of practical training for horticultural majors. Merritt (4) saw program innovation as lagging behind changing career requirements. Some (5) argue for greater standardization in horticulture education; others (6) oppose a rigid curriculum structure.
Victor M. Gallegos-Cedillo, Juan E. Álvaro, Th. Capatos, T. Luan Hachmann, Gilda Carrasco, and Miguel Urrestarazu
and Dufour, 1997 ; Peng et al., 2014 ; Prior et al., 1998 ). According to the Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations ( FAO, 2017 ), from 2012 to 2016, the area of blueberry cultivation worldwide increased by 34.14%, from 82,696 ha to
Steven J. Bergsten, Andrew K. Koeser, and J. Ryan Stewart
evaluated, particularly those of agricultural interest. The main objective of this study was to determine the impact of treatments ranging from low to high salinity had on productivity of young plants of A. weberi , A. parryi , and two subspecies of A
Larry G. Olsen
Advances in biotechnology are rapidly changing the way we work and live, but are often met with controversy or raise ethical questions. Approaches that enhance learning and awareness of biotechnology are essential to increasing citizen understanding of these topics. Educators, both formal and informal, need skills to understand the science associated with these technologies, as they may not have been previously exposed to the topics in their training, especially with the rapidly changing science. To address the need for unbiased agricultural biotechnology information, a graduate level internet-based course was developed entitled: “Introduction to Agricultural Biotechnology”. This course focuses on agricultural biotechnologies related to horticulture and plant science. Online courses are especially useful for students not able to travel due to various constraints, such as working full-time or being physically distant from campus. The goal is a population better able to understand the science behind rapidly advancing biotechnologies and that is better equipped to make informed decisions regarding those technologies. Course assignments are designed to help students as they teach others about topics associated with biotechnology in both formal and informal settings, such as a high school class or an Extension seminar. In the past 5 years, 54 students (teachers, college instructors, or Extension staff) from across the United States have taken the course. Course ratings have been consistently very good (avg. 4.45) on a 1–5 scale (1 = very poor, 5 = excellent). Former students have indicated that they have a better understanding of biotechnology and would be better able to relate it to others. Students also gained an improved awareness of the resources that are available for teaching agricultural biotechnology.