Search Results

You are looking at 121 - 130 of 356 items for :

  • "water conservation" x
  • Refine by Access: All x
Clear All
Free access

Roberto Nunez-Elisea*, Helen Cahn, Lilia Caldeira, and Clark Seavert

A `Regina'/Gisela 6 sweet cherry orchard was planted in April 2001 to evaluate a row cover (RC) made of black, woven polypropylene fabric, in water conservation. Trees were trained to a central leader and planted at 3 m x 5.4 m. Soil water content and tree growth variables were compared for trees growing with or without a 2.4 m-wide RC. Irrigation of all trees replenished approximately 80% of weekly evaporation rate. Trees with RC maintained consistently higher (30% to 40%) soil moisture content at 30 cm depth than non-RC trees. In Spring 2003, trees in RC had significantly larger trunk cross sectional area (34%), height (7%), total wood length (65%), total number of branches (20%) and number of 1-year-old-shoots (45%) compared to trees with no row cover. Length of 1-year-old wood for trees in RC was two-fold that of non-covered trees. In Summer 2003, RC had no clear effect on bloom time, intensity or duration. Fruit yields were light and not affected by RC, but fruit size was slightly larger for trees in RC. Although trees were not fertilized, foliar nitrogen content was significantly higher and leaf green color was notably darker green for trees with RC. During Spring and Summer 2003, soil temperatures under RC at 5-cm and-10 cm depths were generally 1 °C to 2 °C warmer than in non-covered ground. The RC did not affect air temperature at 10 cm and 30 cm above ground. It is speculated that RC promoted tree growth by a combined increased available soil moisture and warmer root temperatures, which favor root development and nutrient uptake, particularly in the absence of competing weeds. Increased branching in trees with RC is unclear. It is possible that light quality above RC triggers developmental changes resulting in increased vegetative budbreak.

Free access

Veronda B. Holcombe and Mary T. Haque

The concept of designing and implementing sustainable landscapes for low-income communities grew from collaboration between several community partners and Clemson Univ. It was our desire to research, plan, design, and implement sustainable landscapes for Habitat for Humanity homes. The primary goal of designing for these low-income homes was to design for sustainability. We wanted our plans to promote energy efficiency, water conservation, and low maintenance costs. These implemented principals would help the homeowner drastically cut living costs. The design and implementation of wildlife habitats was also encouraged to promote knowledge and research on environmental issues. In the beginning of our design phase we interviewed our client about her user needs/desires and later presented her with the design. This began the exhibition and education phase of the project. By exhibiting the project we hoped to education the homeowner about the sustainability issues that are pertinent to her case. Our biggest educational outreach program took place during homecoming at Clemson Univ. Partnering with other student organizations and using donated plant material from a local nursery, we constructed gardens and “planted” trees around a Habitat for Humanity house that is built each year during homecoming and later moved by trailer to its final site. We also displayed our designs inside the house and created pamphlets and brochures for visitors to pick up detailing such topics as Butterfly Gardening. Spurred on by the success of this project a web page detailing our community and organizational involvement was created. Our projects have been covered in many newspaper articles, cable TV, and in a video on service learning being produced for national distribution. As a student it has given me and my other student colleagues an opportunity to engage in and acquire valuable hands-on experience in horticulture and environmental education/stewardship all the while providing a much needed public outreach service that assists and partners with community members in order to enhance their personal home environments.

Full access

Anthony Bratsch, Robert Bellm, and Don Kniepkamp

. Clair County Soil and Water Conservation District and others associated with the Henry White Farm Project. In addition we would like to express our appreciation to the members of the Illinois Nut Tree Growers Association and volunteers from the

Full access

Erin Schroll, John G. Lambrinos, and David Sandrock

Extensive green roofs are a challenging environment for most plants, and this has typically limited the available plant palette. However, some functional goals for green roofs such as wildlife habitat require a broader spectrum of plant species from which to choose. In addition, pronounced seasonality in rainfall is a common climatic trait throughout much of the world; yet, few studies have evaluated green roof plant selections or the need for supplemental irrigation in a seasonally dry climate. In a field trial conducted in the Pacific northwestern United States, we evaluated the performance of eight taxa during establishment and under three different water management regimes post establishment: 1) non-irrigated; 2) irrigation based on green roof–specific water conservation guidelines for Portland, OR; or 3) the minimum irrigation required to maintain good plant condition. Plants were regionally available and represented a range of growth forms (succulents, shrubs, grasses, bulbs, and rhizomes) and potential functional attributes (habitat quality, aesthetic quality, and stormwater management proficiency). All eight species had generally high survival over the establishment year, although hardy iceplant (Delosperma cooperi) and common woolly sunflower (Eriophyllum lanatum var. lanatum) experienced some overwinter mortality. Species differed in the timing and absolute amount of growth during establishment. However, when the strong effect of initial size on growth was taken into account using analysis of covariance, there were no remaining differences between species in the relative magnitude of growth during establishment. During the summer following establishment, irrigation regime had significant effects on survival and growth, but these varied across taxa. Irrigation had no effect on survival or growth of the succulents hardy iceplant and ‘Cape Blanco’ broadleaf stonecrop (Sedum spathulifolium) and the bulb small camas (Camassia quamash). For the other taxa, plant survival and growth generally decreased with decreasing irrigation and many species did not survive at all without irrigation. Several species, particularly the grass roemer's fescue (Festuca idahoensis var. roemeri) and the shrub ‘Lasithi’ cretan rockrose (Cistus creticus ssp. creticus) suffered aesthetically under low irrigation, partly reflecting adaptive responses to drought stress. Weed pressure was high on bare substrate and was enhanced by irrigation, but weed pressure was negligible following canopy closure across all water regimes. These results suggest that succulents, bulbs, and rhizotomous forbs have potential for use on extensive green roofs in seasonally dry climates even without supplemental irrigation. Designing extensive roofs composed of more diverse growth forms will likely require some amount of supplemental irrigation. This study highlights the need to design context-specific green roofs that match appropriate plant selections with explicit functional goals and management plans. This will improve function and reduce the overall costs associated with maintenance.

Full access

Asmita Paudel, Ji Jhong Chen, Youping Sun, Yuxiang Wang, and Richard Anderson

Sego SupremeTM is a designated plant breeding and introduction program at the Utah State University Botanical Center and the Center for Water Efficient Landscaping. This plant selection program introduces native and adapted plants to the arid West for aesthetic landscaping and water conservation. The plants are evaluated for characteristics such as color, flowering, ease of propagation, market demand, disease/pest resistance, and drought tolerance. However, salt tolerance has not been considered during the evaluation processes. Four Sego SupremeTM plants [Aquilegia barnebyi (oil shale columbine), Clematis fruticosa (Mongolian gold clematis), Epilobium septentrionale (northern willowherb), and Tetraneuris acaulis var. arizonica (Arizona four-nerve daisy)] were evaluated for salt tolerance in a greenhouse. Uniform plants were irrigated weekly with a nutrient solution at an electrical conductivity (EC) of 1.25 dS·m−1 as control or a saline solution at an EC of 2.5, 5.0, 7.5, or 10.0 dS·m−1 for 8 weeks. After 8 weeks of irrigation, A. barnebyi irrigated with saline solution at an EC of 5.0 dS·m−1 had slight foliar salt damage with an average visual score of 3.7 (0 = dead; 5 = excellent), and more than 50% of the plants were dead when irrigated with saline solutions at an EC of 7.5 and 10.0 dS·m−1. However, C. fruticosa, E. septentrionale, and T. acaulis had no or minimal foliar salt damage with visual scores of 4.2, 4.1, and 4.3, respectively, when irrigated with saline solution at an EC of 10.0 dS·m−1. As the salinity levels of treatment solutions increased, plant height, leaf area, and shoot dry weight of C. fruticosa and T. acaulis decreased linearly; plant height of A. barnebyi and E. septentrionale also declined linearly, but their leaf area and shoot dry weight decreased quadratically. Compared with the control, the shoot dry weights of A. barnebyi, C. fruticosa, E. septentrionale, and T. acaulis decreased by 71.3%, 56.3%, 69.7%, and 48.1%, respectively, when irrigated with saline solution at an EC of 10.0 dS·m−1. Aquilegia barnebyi and C. fruticosa did not bloom during the experiment at all treatments. Elevated salinity reduced the number of flowers in E. septentrionale and T. acaulis. Elevated salinity also reduced the number of shoots in all four species. Among the four species, sodium (Na+) and chloride (Cl) concentration increased the most in A. barnebyi by 53 and 48 times, respectively, when irrigated with saline solution at an EC of 10.0 dS·m−1. In this study, C. fruticosa and T. acaulis had minimal foliar salt damage and less reduction in shoot dry weight, indicating that they are more tolerant to salinity. Epilobium septentrionale was moderately tolerant to saline solution irrigation with less foliar damage, although it had more reduction in shoot dry weight. On the other hand, A. barnebyi was the least tolerant with severe foliar damage, more reduction in shoot dry weight, and a greater concentration of Na+ and Cl.

Full access

Stefan Sutherin, Kevin Lombard, and Rolston St. Hilaire

information statewide, NMSU established the Center for Landscape Water Conservation (2013) , a web-based clearing house focused on urban landscape plants and water conservation. The center saw the evolution of mobile apps as another avenue for disseminating

Open access

Janet S. Hartin, Rachel A. Surls, and Joseph P. Bush

et al., 2016 ). Background In an effort to increase landscape water conservation, water districts throughout the southwest United States have invested millions of dollars in rebates and incentives for their customers who, in turn, agree to

Free access

Tim R. Pannkuk, Richard H. White, Kurt Steinke, Jacqueline A. Aitkenhead-Peterson, David R. Chalmers, and James C. Thomas

Water is one of our most valuable natural resources and water conservation continues to be a major national priority [ Vickers, 2001 ; Texas Water Development Board (TWDB), 2007 ]. As a result of population growth, current potable water supplies

Full access

Janet S. Hartin, David W. Fujino, Lorence R. Oki, S. Karrie Reid, Charles A. Ingels, and Darren Haver

Between 40% and 70% of water used in urban settings in the United States is applied to landscape plantings ( Cabrera et al., 2013 ; Haley et al., 2007 ; Kjelgren et al., 2000 ; St. Hilaire et al., 2008 ). Water conservation in urban landscapes in

Full access

Melinda Knuth, Bridget K. Behe, Charles R. Hall, Patricia Huddleston, and R. Thomas Fernandez

). Consumer attitudes in water use and “pro-environmental” behavior Consumers’ attitudes regarding water conservation have become more positive and this change in attitudes is paralleled by small behavioral shifts in water usage ( Beal et al., 2013 ). When