study evaluating factors affecting integration of a garden into elementary school curriculum. Teachers feel the biggest factors for school garden success are having a responsible person, a garden site, and adequate funding. Within the same survey
Kathryn Fontenot, Edward Bush, and Rebecca Gravois
Stephanie G. Jutila, Mary Hockenberry Meyer, and Emily Hoover
Focus groups and surveys were used to align volunteers' work with the mission and organizational objectives of the Minnesota Landscape Arboretum (MLA) at the University of Minnesota. In focus groups, a cross-section of volunteers discussed several issues, including how they could more directly contribute to the mission and organizational objectives of the institution. Staff were surveyed on their perceptions of the volunteer workforce, including their current use of volunteers. Focus groups and surveys proved to be valuable tools to approach programmatic changes in volunteer involvement at the MLA by providing a platform to discuss the areas where change is needed, as well as what kind of change should occur. Focus groups can be a key tool in involving volunteers, by allowing them to provide input on changes that directly affect them, in addition to furthering the understanding of volunteer needs and motivations.
Eisuke Matsuo, Hyojung Kweon, Fusayo Asano, and Youko Yoshida
Television and radio are efficient means through which Japanese obtain gardening information. Broadcasting stations were surveyed on the status of gardening programming, year of commencement, length and number of programs, and time and day of broadcasting in 1981 and 1996. Surveys showed that gardening programming increased from the middle 1970s and the late 1980s. These periods roughly correspond with the gardening boom in Japan. The length of gardening programs tended to shorten. On television, broadcasting was more concentrated on weekend mornings in 1996 than 1981, while the concentration of the day and time was less on radio.
P.A. Stack, L.B. Stack, and F.A. Drummond
A mail survey of greenhouse growers was conducted in 1994 and 1995 to determine the presence and importance of western flower thrips (WFT), Frankliniella occidentalis Pergande, in Maine greenhouses in growing years 1993 and 1994. Respondents were licensed growers with at least 1000 ft2 (93 m2) of greenhouse growing area. The survey objectives were to develop a grower demographic profile; determine the incidence of WFT and two WFT-vectored plant viruses, tomato spotted wilt (TSWV) and impatiens necrotic spot (INSV); and identify current WFT management strategies. The survey shows that Maine greenhouse growers are seasonal, experienced and retail oriented. Their growing area averages less than 10,000 ft2 (929 m2) and they produce a diverse crop mix and choose to import production stock as much as propagate it themselves. Both WFT and TSWV/INSV have increased in severity in Maine greenhouses over the past 10 years. Larger, year-round greenhouses are more likely to experience infestations of WFT and higher virus incidence. An integrated pest management (IPM) strategy is employed by the majority of growers surveyed. Insecticide application is the primary tactic used to control WFT. Fewer than 4% of the growers use natural enemies to control thrips. However, 63% responded that future research in pest management should focus on biological control.
Gisele Schoene, Thomas Yeager, and Dorota Haman
A survey was conducted of nursery operators participating in workshops in west-central Florida. The purpose of the survey was to identify the irrigation best management practices (BMPs) adopted by container nurseries in west-central Florida and obtain information regarding emphasis of future extension educational programs. Workshops were conducted in Hillsborough County, Fla., and Manatee County, Fla., and participation was voluntary. Respondents were asked about BMPs used in the nurseries according to the irrigation system used and it was found that the majority of the nurseries relied on well water as the primary source for irrigation. While 69% of the nurseries monitored uniformity of microirrigation systems, only 35% monitored uniformity of overhead irrigation systems. Thirty-four percent of the nurseries collected irrigation or rain runoff and 9% knew the water holding capacity of their substrate. Most of the nurseries grouped plants by irrigation requirements (74%) and grouped container sizes by irrigation requirements (69%). The survey indicates that many BMPs are not widely adopted by nurseries in west-central Florida. The information from this survey can be used as a guide to focus the efforts of university extension educational programs to achieve greater adoption of BMPs.
Tina M. Waliczek, R.D. Lineberger, J.M. Zajicek, and J.C. Bradley
A survey, targeting adults working with youth in garden situations, was designed for delivery on the KinderGARDEN World Wide Web site. The goal of this survey was to investigate adults who are actively involved in gardening with children in school, community or home gardens on their perceptions of the benefits of children participating in gardening. Three hundred-twenty completed surveys were returned via e-mail during a period of 9 months. Fourteen questions were included on the survey requesting information concerning what types of gardening situations in which children were participants and the demographics of the children involved in gardening. Results of the study cover 128,836 children (youth under 18 years old) involved in gardening, primarily with teachers in school gardens. The children involved were generally 12 years of age or under and were growing food crops. Adults gardening with children reported benefits to children's self-esteem and reduction in stress levels. Adults were also interested in learning more about the psychological, nutritional and physical benefits of gardening. Comparisons between those adults involved in gardening found that parents' and teachers' ideas differed concerning the most important aspects of the gardening experience. Parents viewed food production as most important while teachers thought socializing and learning about plants were most important.
B.A. Edmunds and G.J. Holmes
Methods of packing and handling sweetpotatoes are important for mitigating postharvest losses due to decay. The goal of this work is to take a critical look at the packing and handling processes in North Carolina (NC) sweetpotato packinghouses. Similar surveys are being conducted in Louisiana and Mississippi as part of a multi-state project. The survey is inclusive of all packingline operations including sequence of machinery components, length and speed of the packingline, decay control products/strategies used, and impact (bruising) measurements. Packingline impacts are quantified and characterized using a SmartSpud. This instrumented device is placed on the packingline where it is conveyed alongside sweetpotatoes, measuring the impact forces exerted and sending the data via a radio signal to a handheld personal digital assistant (PDA). The information on the PDA is downloaded onto a computer where the results can be displayed in more detail and analyzed. Packinghouse personnel respond well to this visual display and willingly spend one hour being interviewed, discussing the results of the survey, learning about the trouble spots on their lines, and getting advice on how to reduce potential injuries. About 15 out of 30 NC packinghouses have been surveyed (this includes all of the high-volume packinghouses). We typically found the largest impacts (30–70 G) occurring during dumping and at unprotected conveyor changes. Packinglines vary in length from 88 ft to 277 ft with run time varying from 3.5 min to >10 min. Lines all share the same basic components (dump, eliminator, brushbeds, sizer, etc.) with layout and design modified to suit individual needs and space requirements. A variety of decay control methods are in use with about one half of packers surveyed routinely applying the fungicide Botran.
Kathleen M. Kelley, Bridget K. Behe, John A. Biernbaum, and Kenneth L. Poff
coordinators at Michigan State University for permission to conduct these surveys.
Kory M. Beidler, Jeffery K. Iles, Sarah M. Nusser, and Ann Marie VanDerZanden
Corporation. We gratefully acknowledge assistance with the survey design by Janice M. Larson from the Center for Survey Statistics and Methodology at Iowa State University.
Perrin J. Carpenter and Mary Hockenberry Meyer
Homeowners in Edina, Minn., were surveyed in conjunction with a low-input lawn care community educa- tion project. Surveys were sent at the start and finish of the yearlong project, and asked questions pertaining to the respondent's lawn care knowledge, practices, and environ- mental attitude toward lawn inputs. The responses from before the program, compared with those afterward, show overall that homeowners lawn care did not change signifi- cantly by the end of the educational campaign. Responses are useful, however, in targeting future educational efforts. For example, while >80% of respondents were aware of the benefits of leaving mowed clippings on the lawn, <6% knew how much fertilizer is needed yearly for a medium mainte- nance lawn. Participants indicated a 10% weed tolerance was acceptable, but 25% was not; and disagreed with the state- ment "pesticides are not harmful to the environment.”