To study self- and cross-pollination effects on fruit development in southern highbush (mainly Vaccinium corymbosum L.) blueberries, `Sharpblue' plants were caged with honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) and other `Sharpblue' or `Gulfcoast' plants at anthesis. Ratios of pollinizer: fruiting flowers ranged from 2.1 to 4.5. Cross-pollination increased fruit size by ≈14% and seed count by 27% but did not influence fruit set. Overall, seed count decreased by 58% during the 30 days of harvest, but this did not directly affect fruit size. Seed count appeared to influence earliness of ripening as much as it influenced fruit size. Cross-pollination increased the harvest percentage of early-ripening fruits by ≈140% and of premium market fruits (those ≥ 0.75 g) by 13% and decreased the percentage of small fruits by 66%. Consequently, a 43% increase in premium early market crop value (nearly $5000/ha) resulted from optimizing `Sharpblue' cross-pollination.
Gregory A. Lang and Robert G. Danka
Max E. Austin and K. Bondari
Three field experiments were conducted to determine short- and long-term effects of hydrogel mixed with peatmoss, milled pine bark, or soil on growth and yield of blueberry. Rabbiteye blueberry cultivars (Vaccinium ashei Reade) Delite, Tifblue, and Climax, and southern highbush cultivar (V. corymbosum L.) Georgiagem were used as test plants. Hydrogel mixed with soil was detrimental to plant survival. Hydrogel with or without peatmoss or pine bark did not influence yield or berry weight of 3- to 4-year-old `Delite' and 2- to 3-year-old `Tifblue' plants. The southern highbush, `Georgiagem', grown in peatmoss + hydrogel, produced plants of larger volume than those grown in peatmoss alone. Yield or berry weight was not affected significantly by soil amendments. Genetic differences between cultivars affected growth, yield, and berry weight, but the cultivar x soil treatment interaction was not significant.
Kim Patten, Elizabeth Neuendorff, Gary Nimr, John R. Clark, and Gina Fernandez
The relative tolerance of flower buds and flowers of southern highbush blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) to cold damage was compared to rabbiteye (Vaccinium ashei Reade) and highbush blueberry (Vaccinium corymbosum L.). For similar stages of floral bud development, southern highbush and highbush cultivars had less winter freeze and spring frost damage than rabbiteye cultivars. Cold damage increased linearly with stage of flower bud development. Small fruit were more sensitive to frost damage than open flowers. Rabbiteye blueberry flower buds formed during the fall growth flush were more hardy than buds formed during the spring growth flush, regardless of cultivar or stage of development.
Gerard Krewer, John Ruter, D. Scott NeSmith, James Clark, Tony Otts, and Ben Mullinix
Growing southern highbush blueberries in milled pine bark beds ≈15 cm deep has become a popular fruit production system in Georgia and Florida. One of the primary limiting economic factors in this system is the cost of the growing media, which can exceed $10,000 U.S. per ha. In an effort to discover low-cost substitutes for milled pine bark, available waste or low-cost organic materials were screened for there suitability as growing media for southern highbush blueberries. Cotton gin waste, pecan shells, hardwood “flume” dirt, milled composted urban yard waste, composted urban tree trimmings, pine telephone pole peelings, and pine fence post peelings were evaluated. Only pine derived materials had a suitable pH (<5.3). Fresh pine telephone pole peelings (≈25% bark to 75% elongated fibers of cambial wood) and pine fence post peelings (≈75% bark to 25% elongated fibers of cambial wood) were evaluated for several seasons in containers and field trials. The growth index of blueberries in these materials was slightly less or equal to milled pine bark. Surprisingly, nitrogen deficiency was slight or not a problem. The results indicate that pine pole and post peelings may offer an excellent, low-cost substitute for milled pine bark for blueberry production.
B.E. Maust, J.G. Williamson, and R.L. Darnell
Two southern highbush blueberry cultivars, `Sharpblue' and `Misty', were used to investigate the influence of varying flower bud density and fruit load on vegetative development, whole-plant canopy CO2 exchange rate (CER), and leaf CER. Plants were grown in pots and flower buds were removed so that initial flower bud density (fl ower bud number/total cane length) on a whole-plant basis ranged from 0.05–0.35 flower buds/cm. Vegetative budbreak number, leaf area, and leaf area: fruit ratio decreased with increasing flower bud density. In `Sharpblue', whole-plant canopy CER measured at fruit ripening decreased with increasing flower and fruit load and decreasing leaf area:fruit ratio, while leaf CER increased with increasing fruit load and decreasing leaf area:fruit ratio. In `Misty', whole-plant canopy CER measured 4 weeks after full bloom decreased with increasing flower and fruit load, but whole-plant canopy and leaf CER at fruit ripening were similar among the different fruit loads. Average fruit fresh and dry weights increased and the fruit development period decreased with increased leaf area:fruit ratio in both cultivars. These data suggest that carbohydrate source limitations from reduced leaf area development and whole-plant canopy CER lead to decreased fruit fresh and dry weights and delayed ripening in some southern highbush blueberry cultivars.
James N. Moore
The blueberry cultivar situation in North America is undergoing rapid change. Attempts to grow blueberries in non-traditional areas, and increased biotic and abiotic challenges in traditional production areas, are fueling the search for superior, adapted cultivars. This survey of all blueberry-producing states/provinces in the United States and Canada provides the current status and projected trends in blueberry cultivar use in North America. Most (86%) of current hectarage is comprised of 25 northern highbush, 10 rabbiteye, and two southern highbush cultivars. `Bluecrop' is the dominant northern highbush cultivar, with 35% of the highbush area, while `Tifblue' occupies 40% of the rabbiteye area. Some historically important cultivars, such as `Jersey', `Weymouth', and `Woodard' are in decline. New cultivars of all blueberry types are beginning to have a positive impact on the blueberry industry.
E. James Parrie and Gregory A. Lang
Pollen deposition on the stigmatic surface of blueberry pistils was studied with regard to maximum pollen load and stigmatic fluid production (stigma receptivity). Three hybrid southern highbush cultivars (Vaccinium corymbosum L. with V. darrowi Camp, V. ashei Reade, and/or V. angustfolium Aiton), two northern highbush cultivars (V. corymbosum), and one hybrid half-high cultivar (V. corymbosum with V. angustifolium) were selfand cross-pollinated with counted pollen tetrads until saturation of the stigmatic surface occurred. Stigmatic saturation generally required 200 to 300 tetrads and was characterized by the cessation of stigmatic fluid production and the inability to absorb further tetrads. The loss of stigmatic receptivity was irreversible. Cross-pollination resulted in cessation of stigmatic fluid production at lower levels of tetrad deposition than did self-pollination, suggesting a potential pollen-stigma recognition phenomenon. Northern highbush, half-high, and southern highbush cultivars required 7% to 10%, 12% to 17%, and 14% to 21%, respectively, more self-pollen to develop the stigmatic saturation condition. The potential relation of the pollenstigma phenomenon to self-incompatibility mechanisms is discussed.
B.E. Maust, J.G. Williamson, and R.L. Darnell
A field experiment was conducted in Gainesville, Fla., with two southern highbush blueberry cultivars, `Misty' and `Sharpblue', to investigate the influence of varying flower bud load on the timing and extent of vegetative and reproductive development. Flower bud load was adjusted on three different canes on ten plants by removing none, one-third, or two-thirds of the flower buds. Vegetative budbreak, leaf area, fruit number, and fruit fresh weight and dry weight were measured. Vegetative budbreak was delayed with increasing flower bud load. Vegetative budbreak, leaf area, and leaf area: fruit ratio decreased with increasing flower bud load. Fruit maturity was delayed and average berry fresh weight and dry weight declined with decreasing leaf area:fruit ratio. Responses were similar for both cultivars although `Misty' was more adversely affected by high flower bud load and low leaf area: fruit ratio.
James M. Spiers
A greenhouse study was conducted to evaluate the influence of substrate temperatures (16, 27, and 38C) on root and shoot growth of six blueberry (Vaccinium spp.) clones (three clones each of two types). Between types, southern highbush (primarily V. corymbosum L.) produced more roots and total growth than rabbiteye (V. ashei Reade). Comparing clones, `Gulfcoast' (southern highbush) was the most vigorous and `Tifblue' (rabbiteye) the least vigorous. Each clone had a negative linear response to substrate temperatures in all growth characteristics. Root and shoot growth was best at 16C. This study indicates that both rabbiteye and southern highbush blueberries would respond favorably to cultural practices that lower soil temperatures during the summer growing season.
T.F. Wenslaff and P.M. Lyrene
A yellow-leaf seedling marker, r, was used to determine if there was preferential chromosome pairing in a group of tetraploid southern highbush blueberry hybrids. Plants with four copies of r (no copies of R) fail to develop anthocyanins, and cotyledons, hypocotyls, leaves, stems, and other vegetative tissues have a bright yellow-green color. In the hybrids that were studied, two genomes were from the diploid wild species, V. elliottii Chapman, and both carried the recessive marker r. The other two genomes were from southern highbush cultivars and both carried the dominant wildtype allele, R. When RRrr hybrids were intercrossed or crossed to rrrr yellow-leaf plants, the number of yellowleaf rrrr seedlings obtained usually equalled or exceeded the number predicted from nonpreferential chromosome pairing. Since rr gametes can only be produced by RRrr plants when R and r chromosomes pair at Meiosis I, there was no evidence that the chromosomes derived from V. elliottii were pairing at a higher-than-random rate.