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Fredy R. Romero, Kathleen Delate, and David J. Hannapel

With the increase in popularity of echinacea as a botanical supplement, organic production of this herb continues to grow. Echinacea seeds typically show a high percentage of dormancy that can be broken by ethephon or gibberellic acid, but these methods are not accepted in organic production. We examined in three experiments the effects of varying seed source and germination conditions on echinacea growth. To determine the efficacy of nonchemical treatments, we evaluated the effect of light with and without cold-moist stratification on seed germination of the three most important medicinal species of echinacea, E. angustifolia, E. purpurea, and E. pallida. We used cold-moist stratification under 24 h light, 24 h dark, and 16/8 h (light/dark) to break seed dormancy. We found that germination was enhanced in seeds from a commercial organic seed source, compared to a public germoplasm source. When seeds were not cold-moist stratified, light increased germination in E. angustifolia only, suggesting differential dormancy among the three species. We found that when seeds were cold-moist stratified under 16–24 h of light for 4 weeks, the percentage and rate of germination increased 10% over the control, suggesting this method as an alternative to chemical seed treatments.

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Hae-Jeen Bang, Soo-Jung Hwang, Hyun-Sook Ham, and Jung-Myung Lee

Dry heat treatment has been commonly used to inactivate some seed-borne pathogens in vegetable seeds. Virtually all the gourd seeds for watermelon rootstock are being treated with dry heat to inactivate cucumber green mottle mosaic virus (CGMMV, a strain of tobamovirus) and Fusarium. Seeds of five gourd and one squash cultivars were treated with dry heat (35 °C for 24 h + 50 °C for 24 h + 75 °C for 72 h) and, immediately after the dry heat treatment, the seeds (moisture content of 1% or lower) were allowed to absorb atmospheric moisture in a moisture saturated chamber until the seed moisture contents reached 2% to 8%. After the equilibrium obtained, the seeds were sealed in air-tight bags and stored for 1 day or 30 days at 20 °C. The seeds were then sown in cell trays and the emergence and seedling characteristics were evaluated. Dry heat treatment caused significant delay in emergence in all tested cultivars, but had little or no influence on the final emergence rate. Moderate to severe injury was observed in seedlings grown from dry heat-treated seeds in three out of six cultivars tested. However, little or no dry heat phytotoxicity was observed in other cultivars, thus suggesting the marked differences in cultivar susceptibility to dry heat treatment. Rapid humidification before sealing also appeared to reduce the early emergence rate in some cultivars, but had no effect on the final emergence rate in most cultivars. Storage of dry heat-treated seeds in sealed bags for 30 days before sowing was highly effective in minimizing the phytotoxicity symptoms in seedlings as compared to the seedlings grown from the seeds sown immediately after the dry heat treatment. This suggests that the reestablishment of metabolic process required for normal seed germination requires a long period after the dry heat treatment. Other characteristics associated with DH treatment will also be presented.

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Kai Jia, Cunyao Yan, Huizhuan Yan, and Jie Gao

local seed retailers. ‘Qiamagu’ was found to be a salt-tolerant turnip cultivar by Shi et al. (2011) . Plant growth and treatments Expt. 1: Salt stress on seed germination. Seeds of turnips were sterilized using sodium hypochlorite (5%) for 15 min and

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Jacob S. Bravo, Thomas Okada Green, James R. Crum, John N. Rogers III, Sasha Kravchenko, and Charles A. Silcox

previous research with dazomet was conducted based on the product’s initial label, which was focused more on production agriculture fields. The goal of current research is to optimize weed seed germination control when dazomet is used as per the current

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Meiling Yang, Fang Li, Hong Long, Weiwei Yu, Xiuna Yan, Bin Liu, Yunxiu Zhang, Guorong Yan, and Wenqin Song

., 2008 ). The exact pollen germination percentage in different populations of M. sieversii remains unclear. Seed germination is another major aspect for plant reproduction. Relieving seed dormancy successfully is critical for fruit breeding. Evidence

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Jonas Christensen, Uffe Bjerre Lauridsen, Christian Andreasen, and Henrik Lütken

potential to introduce the species as a crop in agriculture by an organic approach and on other soil types than it normally thrives. We focused on seed germination ability, growth rate, and biomass production at low fertilizer levels. Most vegetable crops

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Melike Cirak and James R. Myers

of seed germination without fungicide treatment for green ( p pc ), white ( p Pc ) and colored-seeded ( P Pc ) snap bean genotypes grown at the Oregon State University Vegetable Research Farm, Corvallis, OR, in 2018. p , plant parts not pigmented

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Shawn A. Mehlenbacher and Anna M. Voordeckers

The relationship between dormancy of seeds and buds of apple (Malus × domestica Borkh.) might provide breeders with an early opportunity to select for delayed development. Seeds of late-flowering genotypes require much longer exposure to chilling temperatures than those of early flowering” genotypes, and they germinate over a much longer period. In three progenies that exhibit much variation for the two traits, seed germination time was correlated with time of leafing-out of the resulting seedlings, and could be used to select for delayed budbreak. However, selection would be ineffective when little genetic variation for seed germination and budbreak is present. Leafing-out ratings in the nursery in the 2nd year were highly correlated with those in the 3rd year, indicating that selection for late leafing in the nursery during the 2nd year would be more effective than selection based on seed dormancy, especially in progenies exhibiting little genetic variability for this trait. Breeders can effectively use both relationships by first eliminating early germinating seeds and then eliminating early leafing seedlings.

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Edward Bush, Paul Wilson, and Gloria McClure

A study to determine the influence of light duration on seed germination was performed in a temperature-controlled growth chamber. Light treatments consisted of 0 (control), 6, 8, 10, 12 and 14 h of light exposure. Cool fluorescent light bulbs provided 19 μMol·m-2·s-1 light. Fifty seeds of each treatment were placed into separately labeled 6.0-cm-diameter petri dishes lined with Whatman #42 filter papers moistened with 2 mL of distilled water. Seed of both species germinated poorly in the control treatment. Mean time of germination (MTG) and germination percentage increased for both species when seeds were exposed to light. Pre-soaking seed in gibberellic acid (GA) significantly improved germination percentages of both species compared to the untreated control. Centipedegrass germination percentage and MTG also increased with light exposure. Carpetgrass seed germination was not enhanced by GA treatments with light exposure. The results of this experiment suggests that, if seed are covered too deeply, excluding light, MTG and percentage germination will be reduced. However, pre-soaking seed in a GA solution can improve dark germination by as much as 50% for both grass species.

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Fredy R. Romero, Kathleen Delate, and David J. Hannapel

Organic production of one of the most popular botanical supplements, Echinacea, continues to expand in the U.S. Echinacea seeds typically show a high degree of dormancy that can be broken by ethephon or gibberellic acid (GA), but these methods are currently disallowed in organic production. In order to determine the efficacy of nonchemical seed treatments, we evaluated the effect of varying seed source and supplying light, with and without cold-moist stratification, on seed germination of the three most important medicinal species of Echinacea, E. angustifolia DC, E. purpurea (L) Moench, and E. pallida (Nutt.) Nutt. Treatments included cold-moist stratification under 24 hours of light, 24 hours of dark, and 16/8 hours of light/dark to break seed dormancy. We found that germination was greater in the E. purpurea and E. pallida seeds from a commercial organic seed source compared to a public germplasm source. When seeds were not cold-moist stratified, 16 to 24 hours light increased germination in E. angustifolia only. Echinacea angustifolia, E. purpurea, and E. pallida seeds that were cold-moist stratified under 16 to 24 hours of light for 4 weeks had a significantly greater percentage and rate of germination compared to seeds germinated in the dark. Therefore, cold-moist stratification under light conditions is recommended as a method to break seed dormancy and increase germination rates in organic production of Echinacea.