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Bao-Cheng Ma, Wan-Li Tang, Li-Yan Ma, Ling-Ling Li, Lu-Bin Zhang, Shi-Jiang Zhu, Chuxiong Zhuang, and Donald Irving

; Schickler and Chet, 1997 ). Plants use multiple pathways to transduce pathogenic signals and activate the hypersensitive response (HR), SAR, and other defense responses. The onset of SAR is associated with increased endogenous levels of salicylic acid (SA

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Guangxin Liu, Xiaoqian Su, Lingling Guan, and Fengrong Hu

biochemical metabolic pathways in plants, consequently affecting the growth and development of plants and pathogens ( Espinosa-Leal et al., 2018 ). Most reports have focused on enzymes such as phenylalanine ammonia-lyase, peroxidase, superoxide dismutase, and

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Yi Zhang, Xiao-Hui Hu, Yu Shi, Zhi-Rong Zou, Fei Yan, Yan-Yan Zhao, Hao Zhang, and Jiu-Zhou Zhao

weakening NR and NiR activities, by diminishing NO 3 − -N uptake, and/or by rapid assimilation of NH 4 + stimulated through the NADH-GDH and GS/NADH-GOGAT pathways. In our experiment, a stress-induced increase in plant NADH-GDH, which is an important enzyme

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Shilun Gao, Yuan Gao, Ying Yang, Liming Jia, and Xuehuang Weng

between TNCs, endogenous hormones, and mineral elements. The answers to these questions will reveal the sink transport ability, elucidate the relevant nutrient pathways, and provide theoretical and technical support for decreasing the fruit abscission rate

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Michael P. Dzakovich, Celina Gómez, Mario G. Ferruzzi, and Cary A. Mitchell

., 2000 ; Gautier et al., 2011, 2008 ). Manipulating flavonoids and carotenoids in tomato fruits could also indirectly alter the concentrations of VOCs that are produced from these same pathways ( Baldwin et al., 1991 ; Tieman et al., 2006 ). However

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Hiroko Sato, Tadashi Takamizo, Tsutomu Shimizu, Kiyoshi Kawai, and Koichiro Kaku

chemical spray. Acetolactate synthase (ALS, electrical conductivity 2.2.1.6; also referred to as acetohydroxyacid synthase) is the first common enzyme in the biosynthetic pathways leading to the branched-chain amino acids (isoleucine, leucine, and valine

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Gary W. Stutte, Sharon Edney, and Tony Skerritt

. 3 ). The development of anthocyanin was independent of the photostationary state ( Φ ) of phytochrome ( Fig. 4 ). This suggests that the effect is either a cryptochrome response or else another photoregulatory pathway is involved. Fig. 4. Lettuce cv

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Jonathan D. Mahoney and Mark H. Brand

. communis may provide a pathway for developing new fruits with desirable traits for both growers and consumers. Fruits of Pyrus and Aronia hybrids may be large and sweet, while still maintaining the high levels of health-promoting compounds present in

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Gyeong Ran Do, Ju Hee Rhee, Wan Soon Kim, Yun Im Kang, In Myung Choi, Jeom Hwa Han, Hyun Hee Han, Su Hyun Ryu, and Han Chan Lee

entirely represent male-sterile pollen physiology, but our research findings can contribute to the research on the ontogenetic characteristics of naturally occurring male-sterile triploid pollen as another branch of divergence of the pathways leading to

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Ting-Ting Li, Zhi-Rong Li, Kang-Di Hu, Lan-Ying Hu, Xiao-Yan Chen, Yan-Hong Li, Ying Yang, Feng Yang, and Hua Zhang

by ethylene production and protein degradation. To study whether H 2 S has an effect on ethylene synthesis pathway and protein degradation, expressions of AdSAM , ACS genes AdACS1–3 and ACO genes AdACO1–3 , and cysteine protease genes AdCP1