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Hiroko Sato, Tadashi Takamizo, Tsutomu Shimizu, Kiyoshi Kawai, and Koichiro Kaku

chemical spray. Acetolactate synthase (ALS, electrical conductivity; also referred to as acetohydroxyacid synthase) is the first common enzyme in the biosynthetic pathways leading to the branched-chain amino acids (isoleucine, leucine, and valine

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Gary W. Stutte, Sharon Edney, and Tony Skerritt

. 3 ). The development of anthocyanin was independent of the photostationary state ( Φ ) of phytochrome ( Fig. 4 ). This suggests that the effect is either a cryptochrome response or else another photoregulatory pathway is involved. Fig. 4. Lettuce cv

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Jonathan D. Mahoney and Mark H. Brand

. communis may provide a pathway for developing new fruits with desirable traits for both growers and consumers. Fruits of Pyrus and Aronia hybrids may be large and sweet, while still maintaining the high levels of health-promoting compounds present in

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Gyeong Ran Do, Ju Hee Rhee, Wan Soon Kim, Yun Im Kang, In Myung Choi, Jeom Hwa Han, Hyun Hee Han, Su Hyun Ryu, and Han Chan Lee

entirely represent male-sterile pollen physiology, but our research findings can contribute to the research on the ontogenetic characteristics of naturally occurring male-sterile triploid pollen as another branch of divergence of the pathways leading to

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Ting-Ting Li, Zhi-Rong Li, Kang-Di Hu, Lan-Ying Hu, Xiao-Yan Chen, Yan-Hong Li, Ying Yang, Feng Yang, and Hua Zhang

by ethylene production and protein degradation. To study whether H 2 S has an effect on ethylene synthesis pathway and protein degradation, expressions of AdSAM , ACS genes AdACS1–3 and ACO genes AdACO1–3 , and cysteine protease genes AdCP1

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Kevin M. Folta and Kayla Shea Childers

laboratory plant ( Arabidopsis thaliana ) and applied plant biology. It was presumed that these sensory pathways were conserved among plants and that translation of arabi-centered paradigms would translate cleanly to other plants. Certainly, shining examples

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Naoki Yamauchi and Alley E. Watada

Degradation of chlorophyll in spinach (Spinacia olearacea L. cv. Hybrid 612) appeared to be regulated through the peroxidase-hydrogen peroxide pathway, which opens the porphyrin ring, thus resulting in a colorless compound. This conclusion was arrived at from the analysis of chlorophylls (Chls) and their metabolizes by HPLC and of enzyme activities catalyzing the degradative reactions. Chls decreased at 25C but not at 1C. The chlorophyll oxidase pathway was not active, as noted by the lack of accumulation of a reaction product named Chl a-1. Lipid peroxidation increased with storage, but the products of the reaction. did not degrade chlorophyll, as noted by the lack of increase in Chl a-1. Chlorophyllase activity increased, but chlorophyllide, the expected product of the reaction, changed minimally during senescence. Ethylene at 10 ppm did not alter the pathway that degraded chlorophyll in spinach.

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Morris Lieberman and Alice Kunishi


Ethylene, a “broad spectrum” physiological agent in plant metabolism, has excited new interest in recent years following accumulation of evidence which places it in the category of a plant hormone. Every plant tissue produces ethylene and is influenced by ethylene at some stage in its life cycle; yet the origin of ethylene in plants and the pathways of its biosynthesis are for the most part still unknown. There has been much activity in this field in the past 6 years, and a great advance has been made in the discovery of a precursor of ethylene in metabolism (10). A number of ethylene-forming model systems were developed and these have led to proposals of enzymes, intermediates and pathways for ethylene biosynthesis in vivo. In this discussion I am going to consider these model systems and suggested pathways and evaluate their pertinance to ethylene biosynthesis in tissues.

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T. Casey Barickman, Dean A. Kopsell, and Carl E. Sams

. Because ABA is a product of the carotenoid biosynthetic pathway, we hypothesized that applications of ABA treatments would have a positive impact on leaf chlorophylls and carotenoids. Therefore, applications of ABA treatments may also have a positive

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Arthur A. Schaffer, Marina Petreikov, Daphne Miron, Miriam Fogelman, Moshe Spiegelman, Zecharia Bnei-Moshe, Shmuel Shen, David Granot, Rivka Hadas, Nir Dai, Moshe Bar, Michael Friedman, Meir Pilowsky, Nehama Gilboa, and Leah Chen

The carbohydrate economy of developing tomato fruit is determined by wholeplant source–sink relationships. However, the fate of the imported photoassimilate partitioned to the fruit sink is controlled by the carbohydrate metabolism of the fruit tissue. Within the Lycopersicon spp. there exists a broad range of genetic variability for fruit carbohydrate metabolism, such as sucrose accumulation and modified ratios of fructose to glucose in the mature fruit and increased starch synthesis in the immature fruit. Metabolic pathways of carbohydrate metabolism in tomatoes, as well as natural genetic variation in the metabolic pathways, will be described. The impact of sink carbohydrate metabolism on fruit non-structural carbohydrate economy will be discussed.