Components of variance were estimated for 10 strawberry (Fragaria ×ananassa) color traits to determine their relative importance and to design optimal sampling strategies. The color attributes of >2000 fruit from 47 genotypes from the Univ. of California Strawberry Improvement Program were evaluated over three harvest dates (HDs) in one growing season. Measurements were obtained for a moderate number of fruit from each genotype on each date, and two measurements were obtained for each trait on all fruit. Variances for HDs were nonsignificant or small (0% to 8% of the total variance). Genotype × date variances were highly significant but small (≤6% of the total) for all color traits except internal hue (14% of the total). For external color traits, the within-fruit variance was greater than the among-fruit variance (16% to 64% and 0% to 14% of the total, respectively). For internal color traits, the among-fruit variance was greater than the within-fruit variance (20% to 37% and 9% to 19% of the total, respectively). Obtaining two measurements per fruit for several fruit on one HD is an efficient strategy for characterizing a genotype's fruit color; seven to 22 fruit are needed to estimate a genotype's fruit color within 2 units (Commission Internationale de L'Eclairage L*a*b* or degrees) with 95% confidence.
Erik J. Sacks and Douglas V. Shaw
J.J. Hudson, R.G. Nelson, and B.K. Behe
Some consumer preference studies show that red is the most popular flower color. Most data analyses were univariate. Conjoint analysis allows simultaneous determination of attribute preferences without all alternatives being shown. Our purpose was to determine consumer preferences for geranium flower color, leaf variegation, and price simultaneously using conjoint analysis. Two-hundred and four consumers shopping at two Montgomery, Ala., garden centers in Apr. 1993 rated 25 composite geranium photographs. A lavender geranium, `Danielle', with green and white leaf variegation priced at $1.39 was most preferred. Flower color was most important in the purchase decision, followed by price. Leaf variegation was a minor consideration in the purchase decision.
Yue Sun and Lowell C. Ewart
A dominant gene, R, is hypothesized to control the red underfoliage color inheritance in tetraploid fibrous-rooted Begonia × semperflorens-cultorum. This dominant gene R is considered to also affect the intensity of the foliage color, with RRRR and RRRr giving dark red color on the underside of the leaves. The combination of RRrr and Rrrr gives intermediate red coloration, and homozygous recessive rrrr gives all green foliage. A homozygous RRRR inbred line is being test-crossed for potential commercial value. Cytological investigations of hybrids and inbreds derived from species crosses are ongoing. The results will be presented.
Monika Schreiner, Angelika Krumbein, Ilona Schonhof, Stefanie Widell, and Susanne Huyskens-Keil
A new approach for nondestructive quality assessment based on color measurement was developed for red radishes (Raphanus sativus L.). Postharvest changes in hue angle corresponded with changes in soluble and insoluble pectic substances linked to textural characteristics in `Nevadar' radishes. Changes in glucosinolates were related to changes in chroma and were associated with radish flavor. However, monosaccharides were not related to root color during the 4 days of postharvest period. Nevertheless, the data suggest that root color may be used as a rapid, inexpensive and reliable indicator of quality during the postharvest distribution of radish.
Bernard B. Bible and Suman Singha
Differences in color development between exposed and shaded fruit during the growing season were determined for `Loring' and `Raritan Rose' peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch). The surface color of fruit exposed to sunlight in the upper canopy, and in the shade in the lower canopy, was measured with a tristimulus calorimeter, and L* a* b* values were recorded for each fruit from 17 July through harvest. Color changes (ΔE* ab) during maturation for both cultivars at either canopy position were characterized by large changes in hue (Δ H*ab) and lesser changes in lightness (Δ L*ab) and chroma (Δ C*ab). Upper canopy fruit of both cultivars were redder and darker than the lower canopy fruit initially and at harvest. Flesh firmness for `Loring' and `Raritan Rose' tended to correlate with color change from initial sampling to harvest.
Milton E. McGiffen Jr. and Edmund J. Ogbuchiekwe
Poor root color is a recurring problem in carrot (Daucus carota L.) production. Consumers prefer dark orange carrots that are high in carotene. However, unfavorable environmental conditions and certain production practices can lead to light orange roots with low carotene content. Growers sometimes refer to this as “white root.” No one has clearly established the causes or cures for this disorder. Several environmental factors are known to affect the color of carrots, but to date there is no practical treatment. High-density planting often reduces carotene content. Field studies were conducted in the 1995-96 and 1996-97 winter growing seasons to determine if foliar applications of ethephon would improve carrot color, carotene content, and yield. Carotene content and root color increased as the number of applications or the amount of ethephon applied with each application increased. Root weight was not significantly affected.
Lucianne Braga Oliveira Vilarinho, Derly Jose Henriques da Silva, Ann Greene, Kara Denee Salazar, Cristiane Alves, Molly Eveleth, Ben Nichols, Sana Tehseen, Joseph Kalil Khoury Jr., Jodie V. Johnson, Steven A. Sargent, and Bala Rathinasabapathi
harvested at the green (immature) stage ( Crosby, 2008 ). Recently, a class of sweet pepper types harvested at ripe stage (full color) has gained popularity in the U.S. retail market and are marketed as “stoplight peppers,” “sweet minis,” and “lunchbox snack
Controlled atmosphere (CA) storage for 30 or 60 days reduced quality losses for `Jonagold', `Golden Delicious', `Delicious', `Granny Smith', and `Fuji' apples (Malus domestica Borkh.). After 30 days `Jonagold' and `Golden Delicious' from CA were firmer, had higher acidity, and were less yellow (more green) than apples from regular atmosphere (RA) storage. `Delicious' and `Granny Smith' were firmer after 60 days of CA storage than fruit from RA. In addition, `Granny Smith' from CA had more acid and were greener than apples from RA. After 8 days of ambient storage, little loss in firmness and no loss in acid content occurred with `Jonagold' or `Golden Delicious' from CA compared to the significant loss in firmness and acid when stored in RA. After ambient storage for 8 days, `Jonagold', `Golden Delicious', and `Granny Smith' retained a freshly harvested apple color with more green and less yellow development when stored in CA rather than RA. In `Fuji', the treatments had no effect except for improved acid retention if stored in CA. A combination of 30 days CA followed by 30 days RA produced `Jonagold', `Golden Delicious', and `Delicious' that were superior in quality to apples from 60 days RA.
Jie Zhang, Hong-yan Liu, Xin-yu Qi, Ya-nan Li, and Ling Wang
single flower color ( Wang et al., 2013 ). In recent years, hybridization of wild I. sanguinea has resulted in successful breeding of numerous, colorful flowering cultivars. These new hybridized cultivars include Zidie, a rose–purple cultivar ( Dong et
Charles E. Johnson and Blair Buckley
Inheritance of dark green stripe and light green rind color in watermelon was investigated. Controlled crosses were made between watermelon cultivars: `Louisiana Sweet'-light green rind with dark green stripe; `Calhoun Sweet'-dark green rind without stripes; and `Charleston Gray' and `Calhoun Gray' both having light green rind without stripes. Plants of parental, F1, F2, and BC lines were classified as to rind color and presence or absence of stripe. All F1 progenies produced only striped fruit. Chi Square analysis of F2 and BC generations corresponded to 3:1 and 1:1 ratios respectively, for stripe:no stripe, indicating dark green stripe was controlled by one dominant gene. The cross `Louisiana Sweet' × `Calhoun Sweet',(light green × dark green rind color), resulted in F1 and F2 progeny having only dark green rind fruit, indicating obvious dominance for dark green rind color. Segregation in BC populations indicated a single dominant gene for dark green rind color; however, lack of segregation in the F2 suggests additional factors may be involved.