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Huisen Zhu and Deying Li

/acre langbeinite in April and August. The langbeinite contained 22% potassium (K), 22% sulfur (S), and 11% magnesium (Mg). No pesticides were applied during the 2-year period of study. The turfgrass was mowed at 0.65 inch. Recycled water from a local water

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Isaac T. Mertz, Nick E. Christians, and Adam W. Thoms

Many commercial turfgrass fertilizers are referred to as specialty fertilizers. These products contain nitrogen (N), phosphorus (P), and potassium (K), in addition to organic materials such as plant hormones, humic substances, amino acids (AAs), or

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R.E. Gaussoin, J.A. Murphy, and B.E. Branham

A method for measuring soil water potential in field soils was adapted for use in turfgrass soils. The system uses tensiometers installed flush with the soil surface and permits a measuring depth as shallow as 2.5 to 5.0 cm. Water potential within a tensiometer was measured with a portable pressure transducer. Linear relationships between water potential measured with mercury manometers or vacuum gauge-equipped tensiometers and the pressure transducer were obtained (r2 = 0.99 and 0.97, respectively). The system accurately measures soil water potential of turfgrass soils, while permitting routine cultural practices to be performed.

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Mary Hockenberry Meyer and Phil Allen

This paper presents a decision case concerning the application of herbicides to turfgrass at a public university housing project. Some residents opposed pesticide use, even though the grounds were infested with weeds. The chair of the grounds committee had to decide whether or not to use herbicides given the resulting social implications. The case was written for use in turfgrass management or introductory horticulture classes and possibly for turf and landscape personnel taught through extension education. Students assume the role of a decisionmaker in the complicated issue of pesticide use.

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Mingying Xiang, Justin Q. Moss, Dennis L. Martin, Kemin Su, Bruce L. Dunn, and Yanqi Wu

Bermudagrass is native to Africa, widely distributed, and commonly found in tropical and subtemperate areas ( Taliaferro et al., 2004 ). It is important for forage, turfgrass use, and soil and water conservation. Hybrid bermudagrass [ Cynodon

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Gina Zirkle, Rattan Lal, and Bruce Augustin

3.5% to 4.9% of the U.S. land area ( National Association of Realtors, 2001 ; Nowak et al., 2001 ). As urbanization increases, the percentage of land converted into turfgrass is also increasing ( Bandaranayake et al., 2003 ; Lorenz and Lal, 2009a

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Sudeep S. Sidhu, Qingguo Huang, Robert N. Carrow, and Paul L. Raymer

( Banoub and Delmas, 2003 ). The formation of a thatch-mat layer at home lawn and recreational turfgrass sites, especially golf greens, is accelerated when organic matter production exceeds the degradation rate ( Beard, 1973 ). Thatch, a layer of highly

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M. A. Powell

A very successful project at N. C. State University began in 1983, with the first N. C. Landscape and Turfgrass Field Day. The Field Day is co-sponsored with the N. C. Landscape Contractors Association and the Turfgrass Council of North Carolina. The Field Day is an excellent opportunity for industry to visit with faculty and observe research projects and extension demonstrations. Over the years the attendance has grown to over 1200 paid attendees. The Field Day is actually divided into four separate functions: 1) Educational Field Day, 2) Product and Equipment Field Day, 3) Turf Workshops, and 4) Construction Workshops. The Extension and Research projects benefit financially from this endeavor. Any projects from the Field Day are given back to the University. This typically is about $4000.00. The Field Day is held the third Wednesday in May, rain or shine.

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R.N. Carrow and B.J. Johnson

A turfgrass wear injury study was conducted at Griffin, Ga., on `Tifway' bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon × C. transvaalensis) using two golf car tires and three golf car types driven in a semicircular pattern to deliver 85 passes over the tread path plot area. Wear injury for the 14 days after wear was applied was assessed by visual quality, percent green coverage, leaf bruising, and verdure. Golf tire × car interactions occurred, but more wear occurred with the low pressure (48 × 103 Pa), dimpled tread tire with flexible sidewalls than the commonly used bias ply (4-ply), V-shaped tread tire with more rigid sidewalls. Significant differences in wear damage occurred for golf car type but were influenced by tire design. Thus, selection of golf car tire and golf car type can influence the degree of wear injury on turfgrass sites.

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Grady L. Miller

A survey of selected land-grant universities was conducted to gather information related to design and operation of their turfgrass research units. The objective of this survey was to help the University of Florida in planning a new research unit that will be constructed in 2004–05. The survey provided information related to turf area, building facilities, equipment, supplies, and maintenance. Type of monetary support, cost sharing, labor requirements, utilities, and capitol improvement outlays were documented. The number of support people and faculty with activities at the unit varied depending upon the location, with a mean of five research support people, two support staff, and seven faculty across all units. With the exception of fertilizers (50% donated vs. 50% purchased), most (>80%) of the chemicals, seed, and sod was donated to the units. About one-third of the monetary support for operating and general labor expenses for the units was from soft money and one-third from direct state support. Results from this survey provided ideas that could be used to design and staff a new turfgrass research unit or support for updating an existing unit. In addition, turfgrass industry representatives have an interest in the data since they provide a significant portion of the monetary support and supply of materials to turf research units.