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Francesco Montemurro, Angelo Fiore, Gabriele Campanelli, Fabio Tittarelli, Luigi Ledda, and Stefano Canali

; Eyre et al., 2011 ; Uchino et al., 2011 ). Indeed, soil covered with plants is an effective way to suppress weed growth and reduce soil erosion and nutrient leaching while increasing soil organic matter and sustaining long-term soil fertility and crop

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Matthew D. Jeffries, Travis W. Gannon, W. Casey Reynolds, Fred H. Yelverton, and Charles A. Silcox

attributes, golf course superintendents sometimes renovate bermudagrass areas, at which point its hardy, perennial growth habit may be problematic due to contamination of the successive stand ( Doroh et al., 2011 ). Contamination from previously planted

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Juan Carlos Melgar, Arnold W. Schumann, and James P. Syvertsen

, citrus can be grown in the sandy soils with only minimum contamination of groundwater if best management practices are followed using reduced N application rates ( Paramasivam et al., 2000 ; Schumann et al., 2003 ). Schumann et al. (2003) estimated an

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Danielle D. Treadwell, Nancy G. Creamer, Greg D. Hoyt, and Jonathan R. Schultheis

Cary, NC Staver, K.W. Brinsfield, R.B. 1998 Using cereal grain winter cover crops to reduce groundwater nitrate contamination in the mid-Atlantic coastal plains J. Soil Water Cons. 53 230 240 Stinner

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Richard Smith, Michael Cahn, Timothy Hartz, Patricia Love, and Barry Farrara

serious environmental problems. Nitrate contamination of groundwater has become widespread; it has been estimated that NO 3 -N loading to groundwater exceeds 100 kg·ha −1 ·yr −1 ( Rosenstock et al., 2014 ). Additionally, excessive extraction of

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John E. Beck, Michelle S. Schroeder-Moreno, Gina E. Fernandez, Julie M. Grossman, and Nancy G. Creamer

focus on direct sales and pick-your-own operations in NC has resulted in strawberry production systems located in the same fields year after year ( Poling, 1993 ). Moreover, the warm climate, high humidity, poor fertility, and acidic soils in NC

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Sean M. Westerveld, Alan W. McKeown, and Mary Ruth McDonald

( Government of Ontario, 2002 , 2006 ). This probably will not have much direct effect on carrot yield because there is no yield response of carrot crops to N on organic soils in Ontario, and the response of carrot crops on mineral soil is minimal unless

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Laura L. Van Eerd

, water, and soil resources. The increased pressure to protect consumers and the environment has facilitated the development of new legislation regarding nutrient management and drinking water source protection in Canada and elsewhere ( Beegle et al., 2000

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Ruiqin Bai and Deying Li

) recommended flushing and scalping before reseeding to reestablish turfgrass on soil contaminated with hydraulic fluid because many commercial products recommended for soil remediation of fuel contamination do not work satisfactorily. Kechavarzi et al. (2007

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Eva García-Méndez, David García-Sinovas, Maximo Becerril, Antońeta De Cal, Paloma Melgarejo, Anselmo Martínez-Treceño, Steven A. Fennimore, Carmen Soria, Juan J. Medina, and Jóse M. López-Aranda

For years, strawberry ( Fragaria × ananassa L.) runner plant nurseries have relied on methyl bromide (MB) or mixtures of MB and chloropicrin (Pic) fumigation of soil to produce healthy transplants ( Ajwa et al., 2003 ; Kabir et al., 2005