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Yiwei Jiang, Eric Watkins, Shuwei Liu, Xiaoqing Yu, and Na Luo

dismutases (SOD) convert superoxide radicals to hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ) and molecular oxygen ( Fridovich, 1995 ). Based on the metal cofactor used by enzymes, manganese SOD (MnSOD), iron SOD (FeSOD), and copper/zinc SOD (Cu/ZnSOD) have been identified at

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Hui-Juan Zhou, Zheng-Wen Ye, and Ming-Shen Su

ionization detector was maintained at 260 °C for the injection temperature at 250 °C. Twenty different aroma compounds were identified, and their contents (μg·kg −1 ) were determined according to their pure standards. SOD activity. The SOD activity was

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Kevin Laskowski and Emily Merewitz

leaf extract. Catalase (CAT) activity was measured by the rate of decomposition of H 2 O 2 at 240 nm in 3 mL of reaction mixture consisting of 50 m m sodium phosphate buffer and 45 m m H 2 O 2 ( Chance and Maehly, 1955 ). Superoxide dismutase (SOD

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Haiyan Zhang

developed different strategies to regulate their intracellular ROS concentrations by scavenging of ROS. Major ROS scavenging enzymes include SOD, peroxidase (POD), CAT, and ascorbate peroxidase (APX). Therefore, enhancing the activity of antioxidant enzymes

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Haiyan Zhao, Haiying Liang, Yibing Chu, Congcong Sun, Ning Wei, Mengnan Yang, and Caixia Zheng

mortar with 0.05 mol·L –1 phosphate-buffered saline (PBS; pH 7.0) and placed in a tube with 5 mL PBS. The homogenates were centrifuged at 10,000 rpm for 15 min at 4 °C to obtain supernatants for further analyses. The activities of SOD, CAT, and POD were

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Li-Juan Zhang, Tian-Xiu Zhong, Li-Xin Xu, Lie-bao Han, and Xunzhong Zhang

enzymes, such as SOD (EC, CAT (EC, POD (EC, and ascorbate peroxidase [APX (EC] protect plants against oxidative stress ( Blokhina et al., 2003 ). SOD constitutes the first line of defense against ROS by dismutating

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Lixin Xu, Mili Zhang, Xunzhong Zhang, and Lie-Bao Han

antioxidant defense systems to scavenge ROS such as superoxide radicals (O 2 − ), hydrogen peroxide (H 2 O 2 ), and hydroxyl radicals (HO −. ) ( McKersie and Bowley, 1997 ). The SOD (EC 1.15.11), a group of metalloenzymes, can convert O 2 − to H 2 O 2 , and

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Rebecca Nelson Brown, Cynthia Percivalle, Sophia Narkiewicz, and Samantha DeCuollo

shallow mat with a sharp boundary in the soil profile, slope failure is likely to occur beneath the mat ( Simon and Collison, 2002 ). This sloughing of the sod and topsoil layer is precisely the type of slope failure that occurs along roadsides in Rhode

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Pedro Novillo, Alejandra Salvador, Pilar Navarro, and Cristina Besada

., 2003 ). The ROS metabolism is controlled by an array of interrelated enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), ascorbate peroxidase (APX), and peroxidase (POD), which act concomitantly with nonenzymatic antioxidants; O 2 − is

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Jia Li, Liyun Liu, Huanqi Zhou, and Meng Li

mechanisms in plant cells ( Sairam et al., 2011 ). A number of oxidoreductases, such as SOD, POD, and CAT, are involved in this process. The balance between ROS production and antioxidant enzyme activity determines whether oxidative signaling and damage occur