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Travis C. Teuton, John C. Sorochan, Christopher L. Main, Thomas J. Samples, John M. Parham, and Thomas C. Mueller

been the turfgrass variety of choice in the southern part of the transition zone due to its lack of heat, drought, and disease tolerance. Hybrid bluegrass has displayed the heat and drought tolerance of Texas bluegrass ( P. arachnifera Torr.) and the

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Ariana P. Torres and Roberto G. Lopez

produces large funnel-shaped, bright yellow, fragrant flowers that compliment its glossy green, pinnately compound leaves. Tecoma ‘Mayan Gold’ was selected as a potential new annual patio flowering crop as a result of its compact nature, drought and heat

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Saki Toshima, Marika Fujii, Momoko Hidaka, Soya Nakagawa, Tomonari Hirano, and Hisato Kunitak

and abiotic stresses ( Dai et al., 2015 ; Stanys et al., 2019 ). Traits such as heat or cold tolerance, disease resistance, and fruit qualities are very important for the breeding of raspberry and blackberry ( Clark et al., 2012 ; Molina-Bravo et al

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Ariana P. Torres and Roberto G. Lopez

and South America ( Bailey and Bailey, 1976 ). Tecoma ‘Mayan Gold’ was selected as a potential new annual flowering crop for patio use as a result of its compact structure, drought and heat tolerance, long-blooming characteristics, and few disease

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David W. Davis and Karl J. Sauter

Attention has been given in recent literature to crop breeding for heat tolerance, but, as with certain other physiological traits, such as photosynthetic efficiency, practical gain has lagged. The question remains as to whether heat tolerance can be improved, and, if so, if it can most efficiently be improved by a holistic approach, as in breeding for yield following timely high temperature levels in the field environment, or whether the breeding for heat (and drought) tolerance components in the laboratory would be feasible. At issue is the identification and repeatability of key plant responses, such as cell membrane damage, heat shock protein formation, increased ethylene output and other responses, and the relevance, effectiveness and cost of screening for such traits. Results from our laboratory, and the work of others, will be reviewed.

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David W. Davis and Karl J. Sauter

Attention has been given in recent literature to crop breeding for heat tolerance, but, as with certain other physiological traits, such as photosynthetic efficiency, practical gain has lagged. The question remains as to whether heat tolerance can be improved, and, if so, if it can most efficiently be improved by a holistic approach, as in breeding for yield following timely high temperature levels in the field environment, or whether the breeding for heat (and drought) tolerance components in the laboratory would be feasible. At issue is the identification and repeatability of key plant responses, such as cell membrane damage, heat shock protein formation, increased ethylene output and other responses, and the relevance, effectiveness and cost of screening for such traits. Results from our laboratory, and the work of others, will be reviewed.

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Aref A. Abdul-Baki and John R. Stommel

Heat-tolerant and -sensitive Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. and L. pimpinellifolium (Jusl.) Mill. genotypes were grown in the greenhouse under optimum- (27/23C, day/night) and high-temperature (35/23C) stress regimes. Heat tolerance levels in the genotypes were established by determining percent fruit set at high and optimum temperatures. Under optimum temperature, fruit set ranged from 41% to 84% and from 45% to 91% in the heat-sensitive and heat-tolerant genotypes, respectively. Under high temperature, no fruit set in the most heat-sensitive genotypes. Fruit set in the heat-tolerant genotypes ranged from 45% to 65%. In vitro germination and tube growth of pollen taken from genotypes grown under optimum temperature conditions were determined before and after subjecting the pollen to 45C for 1, 2, and 4 hours. The response of pollen to heat treatments was genotype dependent and not a general predictor of fruit set under high-temperature stress.

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J.W. Scott, S.M. Olson, H.H. Bryan, J.A. Bartz, D.N. Maynard, and P.J. Stoffella

`Solar Fire' is a heat-tolerant hybrid tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. formerly Lycopersicon esculentum Mill.) with resistance to all three races of Fusarium wilt incited by Fusarium oxysporum f. sp. lycopersici Sacc. Snyder & Hansen. It has superior fruit-setting ability in comparison with most existing cultivars under high temperatures (>32 °C day/>21 °C night), and the fruit crack less under the rainy field conditions often present in the early fall Florida production season. Fla. 7776 is the pollen parent in `Solar Fire', providing much of the heat tolerance in this hybrid. It has large fruit-providing breeders with a parent to produce heat-tolerant hybrids with two heat-tolerant parents.

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Seenivasan Natarajan and Jeff Kuehny

One of the greatest impediments to the production of marketable ornamental herbaceous plants in the southern U.S. is high temperature stress. Exposure of plants to sublethal temperature (heat preconditioning) prior to sustained heat stress helps some plants to tolerate subsequent heat stress, a phenomenon often referred as acquired thermotolerance. The objective of this experiment was to examine various morphological, physiological, and anatomical responses of two red varieties of each of the `Vista' (heat tolerant) and `Sizzler' (heat sensitive) series of Salvia splendens to heat preconditioning (HC) and subsequent heat stress treatments [challenging temperatures (CT)]. Cultivars of salvia were subjected to short duration (3 hours) HC of 35 °C every third day until 5 weeks after germination and subsequent exposure to two CT treatments: 30/23 °C and 35/28 °C (day/night) cycles in growth chambers until flowering. Plant growth, marketable quality, stomatal conductance and net photosynthesis declined for `Sizzler' without HC treatment. Compared with nonpreconditioned plants, heat-preconditioned `Sizzler' had 38.28% higher root dry weight, 95% greater leaf thickness, and 50% higher marketable quality at 35/28 °C heat stress condition. Heat preconditioning helped both `Vista' and `Sizzler' to survive in both the heat stress treatments. `Vista' had greater heat-tolerant traits than `Sizzler'; these traits were enhanced with heat preconditioning treatment. The results demonstrated that heat preconditioning enhanced heat tolerance in varieties of salvia, which could be related to heat-tolerant traits, such as dense plant growth with shorter internodes, thicker stems, greater stomatal conductance, and extensive root growth that compensated for the transpiration water loss and cooling effect.

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Aref A. Abdul-Baki, Sanaa A. Haroon, and David J. Chitwood

The Mi gene, which is the only source of resistance to the root-knot nematodes M. incognita and M. javanica in tomatoes, is effective only at soil temperatures below 28C. This single dominant gene exists in a homozygous form in certain tomato cultivars, in a heterozygous form in others, and is lacking in others. It has also been introduced into heat-tolerant and heat-sensitive cultivars. The availability of such genotypes allows determining whether a) the homozygous form provides more resistance than the heterozygous form and b) heat tolerance protects the Mi gene at high-temperature stress. The results of in vitro tests using excised roots show that the resistance offered by the Mi gene in the homozygous or the heterozygous form to M. incognita and M. arenaria was the same. The presence of heat tolerance gene did not protect the Mi gene from losing its effectiveness above 28C.