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Henry M. Cathey


2,3-dihydro-5,6-diphenyl-1,4-oxathiin, (UBI-P293) acts as localized blocker of cell division and expansion while well formed tissues are exempt and develop normally. When applied to vegetative chrysanthemum plants, UBI-P293 blocked development of the top 8–10 nodes; whereas lateral shoots developed at the same rate, number, and weight as those observed on manually pruned plants. When applied to plants initiating flowers, UBI-P293 caused chemical disbudding by blocking development of laterals while the terminal bud was exempt and expanded into a normal inflorescence. The optimum concentration for the 35 cultivars evaluated varied from 0.25 to 1.0% when applied between 15 to 24 short days. Higher concentrations or earlier applications of UBI-P293 inhibited all development.

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Scarlett L. Walker and Richard L. Harkess


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Renee Timmermann and M.A.L. Smith


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Long Ma, Kevin E. Kenworthy, Huangjun Lu, and Ronald Cherry

of the leaf. It has a boat-shaped leaf tip and flattened leaf sheath ( Bruneau et al., 2008 ). The seed head of common carpetgrass usually includes two to three raceme-type branches with the upper two branches approximate and the third remote ( Heath

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Gilles Galopin, Sandrine Codarin, Jean-Daniel Viemont, and Philippe Morel

. Fertile florets are differentiated as of the second branching order in terminal position. Sterile florets are differentiated later and are located on the secondary branchings of the dichasium. Inflorescence development takes place over two growing

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Ellen Thompson, Bernadine C. Strik, John R. Clark, and Chad E. Finn

primocanes and winter pruning of floricanes. Tipping the upper portion of the primocane in early summer removes apical dominance and encourages branching. Similarly, soft-tipping (removing the upper 2 to 5 cm) primocane-fruiting types in early summer may be a

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Benjamin D. Toft, Mobashwer M. Alam, John D. Wilkie, and Bruce L. Topp

Lespinasse, 2001 ; Sherif, 2013 ), and increased branching can improve early flowering of mango due to availability of terminal shoots ( Oosthuyse and Jacobs, 1995 ), although similar relationships are unclear for macadamia. Therefore, it is necessary to

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Diana R. Cochran and Amy Fulcher

phytotoxicity ( Meijón et al., 2009 ) and be perceived as digressing from sustainable production ( Lütken et al., 2012 ). Plant growth regulators have several modes of action, including branch inducing, chemical pinching (chemicals that suppress apical dominance

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Bernadine C. Strik, John R. Clark, Chad E. Finn, and Gil Buller

this new crop. Soft-tipping the primocane at 1 m induced branching and increased flower and fruit number and yield threefold without affecting fruiting season in Oregon ( Strik et al., 2008 ). A double tip, where branches are further shortened, has been

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Peter J. Zale, Daniel K. Struve, Pablo Jourdan, and David M. Francis

focused on the creation of interspecific hybrids with the goal of improved flower quality, flower color, or flowering period. There have been no reports of studies on other morphological characteristics of M. virginiana such as height, branching pattern