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John Wells, Jiyu Yan, Melissa Riley, Suresh Samala, and Vance Baird

Bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon) cultivars may exhibit increased tolerance to cold following periods of exposure to moderately cold temperature (i.e., acclimation). We are evaluating biochemical changes and the regulation of gene expression in two cultivars—'Midiron' and U-3—during this acclimation period. Total membrane lipid fatty acids per unit of total lipids (MLFA/TL; μg·mg–1) increased in crowns over the 4-week exposure to chilling temperatures (8C day/2C night). Of the fatty acids comprising 95% of total MFLA, concentrations of short-chain and saturated FAs declined significantly while unsaturated longer-chain FA concentration increased. As a result, the double bond index (percent of each FA x number of double bonds in the FA) increased during the period of low temperature exposure, indicative of increasing membrane fluidity. Changes in MFLA were evident as early as 4 days following exposure to chilling temperatures. Identification of mRNA species expressed in response to low temperature utilized differential display-PCR. Initial screening with paired T11N1N 2 3'-anchor and 5'-random decamer primers has identified transcripts differentially expressed as early as 23 h post-exposure and was maintained for at least an additional 36 h. Isolation, reamplification, and cloning of these identified PCR products is in progress.

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Aaron J. Patton, Jon M. Trappe, and Michael D. Richardson

establishment compared with control plots when irrigated ( Hensler et al., 2001 ). Porous germination blankets made from spun-bound polyester can be used to establish bermudagrass and zoysiagrass ( Patton et al., 2004 ), but these covers did not improve the

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Brian M. Schwartz, Wayne W. Hanna, Lisa L. Baxter, Paul L. Raymer, F. Clint Waltz, Alec R. Kowalewski, Ambika Chandra, A. Dennis Genovesi, Benjamin G. Wherley, Grady L. Miller, Susana R. Milla-Lewis, William C. Reynolds, Yanqi Wu, Dennis L. Martin, Justin Q. Moss, Michael P. Kenna, J. Bryan Unruh, Kevin E. Kenworthy, Jing Zhang, and Patricio R. Munoz

There are ≈20 million hectares of turfgrass managed in the United States, constituting the $40 billion turfgrass industry ( National Turfgrass Federation, 2017 ). In most tropical and warm, temperate regions, bermudagrass ( Cynodon spp.) is the

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J.L. Nus and K. Shashikumar

Although the effect of cold winters on the severity of bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon Pers.) spring dead spot (SDS) has been studied, information is needed concerning the effect of infection by fungi associated with SDS on the host's freezing resistance. A-22 bermudagrass was inoculated with Leptosphaeria korrae J. Walker & A.M. Smith and Ophiospharella herpotricha (Fr.) J. Walker & A.M Smith. Differential thermal analysis was used to monitor exotherm temperatures of healthy and O. herpotricha- and L. korrae-infected A-22 bermudagrass at 10-day intervals during 90 days of acclimation in cold chambers. Healthy bermudagrass crowns supercooled to an average of -6.7C and fungi-infected crowns supercooled to an average of -4.8 and -4.4C, respectively. Healthy crown exotherm temperatures were significantly lower than those of fungi-infected bermudagrass crowns on all nine sampling dates. This result indicates that fungi-infected plants are more susceptible to cold damage.

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F.B. Iriarte, J.D. Fry, D.L Martin, T.C. Todd, and N.A. Tisserat

Spring dead spot (SDS), caused by three root-infecting species of Ophiosphaerella, is a destructive disease of bermudagrass (Cynodon spp.L.C. Rich). We tested the effects of incubation temperature and duration, and exposure to decreasing freezing temperatures on bermudagrass shoot survival following inoculation with SDS pathogens. Inoculated plants exposed to freezing temperatures as high as -2 °C following a two month incubation exhibited extensive shoot mortality and had SDS symptoms consistent with those observed in the field. Lowering the freezing temperature from -2 to -8 °C increased disease severity and shoot mortality on noninoculated bermudagrass. Inoculated bermudagrass incubated for 1 month in the greenhouse, then for an additional month at 4 °C had greater shoot mortality following freezing than plants incubated at 25 °C. Although cold acclimation and freezing intensified SDS symptoms, the technique did not reliably distinguish between resistant and susceptible cultivars.

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Shawn Brewer and Michael Maurer

Transition of perennial ryegrass from bermudagrass athletic fields in the spring delays the establishment of bermudagrass when the establishment period is limited. The objective of this field study was to determine the effects of transition herbicides on the establishment of seeded bermudagrass. Treatments consisted of an untreated control, foramsulfuron, rimsulfuron, trifloxysulfuron sodium, metsulfuron methyl methyl, isoxaban, and oxadiazon at low- and high-labeled rates for transitioning perennial ryegrass. `Riviera' bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.] seed was seeded immediately after treatment and 2 weeks after treatment. Turfgrass coverage was evaluated visually and by digital analysis. Although differences between methods of turfgrass coverage evaluation varied, the differences between treat-ments were similar. There was no significant differences in turfgrass establishment between foramsulfuron, rimsulfuron, trifloxysulfuron sodium, metsulfuron methyl methyl, and the control for either seeding date or rate. Turfgrass coverage was significantly less for isoxaban and no turfgrass was established in the oxadiazon treatments. Initial results of this research indicate that bermudagrass seed can be seeded immediately following the application of foramsulfuron, rimsulfuron, trifloxysulfuron sodium, and metsulfuron methyl methyl.

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A.R. Mazur and J.S. Rice

Research was conducted to determine the influence of the rate of seeding perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne L.) over bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers × C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davy] on both the establishment of the ryegrass and the quality of bermudagrass golf greens. Increasing seeding rate from 90 to 180 g·m–2 resulted in more rapid establishment and a linear increase in turf quality. Turf density, as measured by leaf number, displayed linear and quadratic responses to seeding rates, with higher rates producing the greatest leaf numbers. Leaf width declined linearly with seeding rate, suggesting higher putting quality, as did tillers per plant. Spring transition to bermudagrass was slowed at high (150–180 g·m–2) seeding rates, with significantly more ryegrass present in late May. Emergence and growth of bermudagrass were suppressed longer at the higher overseeding rates. We conclude that the choice of seeding rate for ryegrass is a compromise between rapid development of, and maintenance of, quality turf vs. early smooth transition to bermudagrass in the spring.

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Michael W. Smith, Margaret E. Wolf, Becky S. Cheary, and Becky L. Carroll

Two studies were conducted to determine if selected grass and dicot species had an allelopathic interaction with pecan (Carya illinoinensis Wangenh. C. Koch). Leachate from pots with established grasses or dicots was used to irrigate container-grown pecan trees. Leachates from bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.], tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Shreb. cv. Kentucky 31), redroot pigweed (Amaranthus retroflexus L.), and cutleaf evening primrose (Oenothera laciniata Hill) reduced leaf area and leaf dry weight about 20% compared to the controls. Bermudagrass, tall fescue, and primrose leachate decreased pecan root weight 17%, trunk weight 22%, and total tree dry weight 19% compared to the control. In a second study, trees were 10% shorter than the control when irrigated with bermudagrass or pigweed leachate.

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B.J. Johnson

Pendimethalin and oxadiazon are used commonly to control crabgrasses (Digitaria spp.) in tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea Schreb.) and common bermudagrass [Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers.]. A field experiment was conducted for 2 years to determine if reduced pendimethalin and oxadiazon application rates would control large crabgrass [D. sanguinalis (L.) Sco.] effectively in tall fescue and common bermudagrass. Oxadiazon applied at 1.1 kg a.i./ha in each of two applications at a 60-day interval (less than recommended rate) effectively controlled large crabgrass (≥93%), regardless of turfgrass species. Pendimethalin applied at 1.1 kg a.i./ha in each of two applications controlled large crabgrass in common bermudagrass effectively (≥90%) but not large crabgrass in tall fescue (47%). The difference in pendimethalin performance between the two species was attributed to the ability of common bermudagrass to compete more successfully than tall fescue with large crabgrass during late summer. Chemical names used: 3-[2,4-dichloro-5-(1-methylethoxy)phenyl]-5-(1,1-dimethylethy1)-l,3,4-oxadiazol-2-(3 H)-one (oxadiazon); N-(1-ethylpropyl)-3,4-dimethyl-2,6-dinitrobenzenamine (pendimethalin).

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M.L. Elliott, E.A. Guertal, and H.D. Skipper

The rhizospheres of creeping bentgrass (Agrostis palustris Huds.) and hybrid bermudagrass (Cynodon dactylon (L.) Pers. × C. transvaalensis Burtt-Davy) putting greens were sampled quarterly for 4 years. Six bacterial groups, including total aerobic bacteria, fluorescent pseudomonads, actinomycetes, Gram-negative bacteria, Gram-positive bacteria, and heat-tolerant bacteria, were enumerated. The putting greens were located in four geographic locations (bentgrass in Alabama and North Carolina; bermudagrass in Florida and South Carolina) and were maintained according to local maintenance practices. Significant effects were observed for sampling date, turfgrass species and location, with most variation due to either turfgrass species or location. Bentgrass roots had significantly greater numbers of fluorescent pseudomonads than bermudagrass roots, while bermudagrass roots had significantly greater numbers of Gram-positive bacteria, actinomycetes and heat-tolerant bacteria. The North Carolina or South Carolina locations always had the greatest number of bacteria in each bacterial group. For most sampling dates in all four locations and both turfgrass species, there was a minimum, per gram dry root, of 107 CFUs enumerated on the total aerobic bacterial medium and a minimum of 105 CFUs enumerated on the actinomycete bacterial medium. Thus, it appears that in the southeastern U.S. there are large numbers of culturable bacteria in putting green rhizospheres that are relatively stable over time and geographic location.