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Raisuddin Ahmed

Transformation of developing, subsistence economies into commercial and industrialized societies accompanies a declining share of agriculture in the gross domestic product (GDP). However, the shares of high-value products like horticultural, livestock and fish products increase with the decline of low-value products like cereals. This process of transformation is generally endogenous to various forces of supply and demand and, therefore, its pace can be influenced by policies. The forces in the demand side include income and income parameters of domestic consumers, and the ability to exploit foreign demand through exports of horticultural products. On the supply side, a large number of factors constrain the production of horticultural products. Agro-ecological constraints are country-specific. Technological backwardness, lack of quality control and standardization, weak marketing infrastructure including risk insurance, comparative advantages and institutional weakness in linking with world markets and exploiting economies of scale are some of the fundamental problems confronted by most developing countries. Export of horticultural products from developing countries is perhaps the most crucial factor that can impact the process of transformation mentioned above. Macro-economic policies that maintain a stable incentive structure for exports are important. But policies that respond to the constraints in the channel linking farmers in developing countries to supermarkets in the developed world are perhaps more important. Developing countries currently share only about 27% of world trade in horticultural products. More than 80% of this trade is, however, shared by only 31 developing countries. Barriers to entry into the developed market by new exporters of horticultural products are enormous. Whether the emerging forces of globalization under the auspices of WTO would make the entry problem more difficult or easier for vast majority of the developing countries is an open, but critical, question.

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Emile A. Frison, Wanda W. Collins, and Suzanne L. Sharrock

1 Director. e-mail: E.Frison@cgnet.com 2 Agricultural Research Adviser. e-mail: WCollins@worldbank.org 3 Scientific Assistant. e-mail: S.Sharrock@cgnet.com Viewpoints are published in HortScience to provide Members of the American

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Damian M. Parr and Mark Van Horn

In the mid-1970s, University of California, Davis, students concerned about the environmental and social consequences of modern agriculture were interested in exploring the practice and theory of “alternative” agriculture. These students organized to create new educational opportunities to address needs that were not being met by the existing curricula. These student-initiated opportunities emphasized interdisciplinary analyses of agriculture and field-based experiential learning; they included student-organized courses and the development of the Student Experimental Farm (SEF) as a site for student education, research, demonstration, and extension projects. Over the next three decades, the SEF developed diverse experiential educational projects, classroom and field-based courses focusing on sustainable and organic agriculture, and several departments and programs offered additional, related courses and curricula. In 2004, an interdisciplinary curriculum committee within the College of Agricultural and Environmental Sciences began to develop an undergraduate major in sustainable agriculture. A team of faculty and students within the committee conducted a broad stakeholder survey of agricultural practitioners, academics, students, and alumni to help inform decisions regarding what content, skills, and experiences to include in the curriculum. The survey findings reinforced the original curricular and pedagogical themes articulated and acted upon by students 30 years prior. The proposed curriculum is aimed at integrating disciplinary and interdisciplinary coursework in natural and social sciences, significant on- and off-campus experiential learning, and an emphasis on professional and interpersonal problem-solving and communication skills. Educational theory supports these diverse educational approaches and is useful in helping design courses and curricula in organic and sustainable agriculture.

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Dirk Vuylsteke, Rodomiro Ortiz, Cornelia Pasberg-Gauhl, Friedhelm Gauhl, Cliff Gold, Shaun Ferris, and Paul Speijer

. Swennen and G.F. Wilson, former International Institute of Tropical Agriculture (IITA) plantain scientists; other colleagues at IITA; and E. De Langhe and G. Sery, International Network for the Improvement of Banana and Plantain, for their close

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Shih-Han Hung, Chia-Ching Wu, Yu-Chen Yeh, Ang Yeh, Chun-Yen Chang, and Hsing-Fen Tang

visitors can experience a variety of rural and traditional agricultural life and landscapes, mimicking patterns of the past and meeting agricultural functions. The value of agritourism is often evaluated by the activities provided, and what naturalistic and

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Julian Mendel, Kenneth G. Furton, and DeEtta Mills

this plant disease. Materials and methods Study location This study was conducted in a privately owned mango ( Mangifera sp.) grove in the Redland agricultural district near Homestead, FL, under the Institutional Animal Care and Use Committee (IACUC

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Yule Miao, Zhiqiang Wang, Junren Meng, Wenfang Zeng, Lei Pan, Guochao Cui, and Liang Niu

1992, the American yellow-flesh nectarine cultivar Armking was selected as the female parent, and the early-maturing yellow-flesh nectarine cultivar 4-14-41, which was bred by the Zhengzhou Fruit Research Institute, Chinese Academy of Agricultural

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Eliezer S. Louzada, Hilda Sonia de Rio, Allison J. Abell, Gerson Peltz, and Michael W. Persans

research, troubleshooting, and career opportunities in agricultural biotechnology. After the internship, the students were asked to write a few paragraphs about the general impact of the research training on their lives, including their career choices

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Arthur Wallace

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William C. Liebhardt